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FastScan ELISA Kit Negative Regulation of Cytokine Production

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total Btk ELISA Kit is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of Btk. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with Btk in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of Btk. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) is a member of the Btk/Tec family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Like other Btk family members, it contains a pleckstrin homology (PH) domain and Src homology SH3 and SH2 domains. Btk plays an important role in B cell development (1,2). Activation of B cells by various ligands is accompanied by Btk membrane translocation mediated by its PH domain binding to phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (3-5). The membrane-localized Btk is active and associated with transient phosphorylation of two tyrosine residues, Tyr551 and Tyr223. Tyr551 in the activation loop is transphosphorylated by the Src family tyrosine kinases, leading to autophosphorylation at Tyr223 within the SH3 domain, which is necessary for full activation (6,7). The activation of Btk is negatively regulated by PKCβ through phosphorylation of Btk at Ser180, which results in reduced membrane recruitment, transphosphorylation, and subsequent activation (8). The PKC inhibitory signal is likely to be a key determinant of the B cell receptor signaling threshold to maintain optimal Btk activity (8).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Total PD-L1 ELISA Kit (Mouse Preferred) is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of PD-L1. To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with PD-L1 in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of PD-L1. Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Background: Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).

$499
96 assays
1 Kit
The FastScan™ Phospho-Zap-70 (Tyr319) ELISA Kit (Human Preferred) is a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of phospho-Zap-70 (Tyr319). To perform the assay, sample is incubated with a capture antibody conjugated with a proprietary tag and a second detection antibody linked to HRP, forming a sandwich with phospho-Zap-70 (Tyr319) in solution. This entire complex is immobilized to the plate via an anti-tag antibody. The wells are then washed to remove unbound material. TMB is then added. The magnitude of observed signal is proportional to the quantity of phospho-Zap-70 (Tyr319). Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Syk family protein tyrosine kinase Zap-70 is expressed in T and NK cells and plays a critical role in mediating T cell activation in response to T cell receptor (TCR) engagement (1). Following TCR engagement, Zap-70 is rapidly phosphorylated on several tyrosine residues through autophosphorylation and transphosphorylation by the Src family tyrosine kinase Lck (2-6). Tyrosine phosphorylation correlates with increased Zap-70 kinase activity and downstream signaling events. Expression of Zap-70 is correlated with disease progression and survival in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (7,8).