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Human Cellular Sodium Ion Homeostasis

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Na,K-ATPase α1 (D4Y7E) Rabbit mAb #23565.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Na,K-ATPase is an integral membrane heterodimer belonging to the P-type ATPase family. This ion channel uses the energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to maintain membrane potential by driving sodium export and potassium import across the plasma membrane against their electrochemical gradients. It is composed of a catalytic α subunit and a β subunit (reviewed in 1). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified for the α1 subunit. Tyr10 is phosphorylated by an as yet undetermined kinase (2), Ser16 and Ser23 are phosphorylated by PKC, and Ser943 is phosphorylated by PKA (3-5). All of these sites have been implicated in the regulation of enzyme activity in response to hormones and neurotransmitters, altering trafficking and kinetic properties of Na,K-ATPase. Altered phosphorylation in response to angiotensin II stimulates activity in the rat proximal tubule (6). Na,K-ATPase is also involved in other signal transduction pathways. Insulin regulates its localization in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells, and this regulation is dependent on ERK1/2 phosphorylation of the α subunit (7). Na,K-ATPase and Src form a signaling receptor complex that affects regulation of Src kinase activity and, subsequently, its downstream effectors (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: NCX1 (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, isoform 1) belongs to a conserved family of sodium-calcium membrane antiporter proteins that play a fundamental role in regulating intracellular calcium levels (1). NCX1 facilitates transmembrane transport of Ca2+ ions in exchange for Na+ ions in response to electrochemical gradients (2). Due to its relatively low affinity for calcium, NCX1 most commonly functions to export Ca2+ under acute conditions of high intracellular Ca2+. Notably however, NCX1 is a reversible antiporter, and can thus facilate Ca2+ influx under specialized physiological circumstances (3). Research studies have shown that NCX1 is particularly important for regulating intracellular Ca2+ levels in excitatory cell types (e.g., neurons, cardiac muscle). For example, conditional knockout of NCX1 in mouse cardiac pacemaker cells identified a critical role for NCX1 in the initiation and maintenance of cardiac rhythm (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neural precursor expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) was originally identified as a gene that is highly expressed in the early mouse embryonic central nervous system (1). Subsequently, a family of NEDD4-like proteins have been defined that includes seven members in humans (2). NEDD4 and NEDD4-like (NEDD4L) proteins contain multiple functional domains including a calcium-dependent phospholipid and membrane binding domain (C2 domain), two to four protein binding domains (WW domains), and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase domain (HECT domain). NEDD4 and NEDD4L have been shown to downregulate both neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaVs) and epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in response to increased intracellular Na+ concentrations (3,4). The WW domains of NEDD4 bind to PY motifs (amino acid sequence PPXY) found in multiple NaV and ENaC proteins; ubiquitination of these proteins is mediated by the HECT domain of NEDD4 and results in their internalization and removal from the plasma membrane. Research studies have shown that mutation of the PY motifs in ENaC proteins is associated with Liddle's syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of hypertension (5). In addition to targeting sodium channels, NEDD4L has also been shown to negatively regulate TGF-β signaling by targeting Smad2 for degradation (6). Mouse and human NEDD4 are rapidly cleaved by caspase proteins during apoptosis, although the significance of this cleavage is not clear (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neural precursor expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) was originally identified as a gene that is highly expressed in the early mouse embryonic central nervous system (1). Subsequently, a family of NEDD4-like proteins have been defined that includes seven members in humans (2). NEDD4 and NEDD4-like (NEDD4L) proteins contain multiple functional domains including a calcium-dependent phospholipid and membrane binding domain (C2 domain), two to four protein binding domains (WW domains), and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase domain (HECT domain). NEDD4 and NEDD4L have been shown to downregulate both neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaVs) and epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in response to increased intracellular Na+ concentrations (3,4). The WW domains of NEDD4 bind to PY motifs (amino acid sequence PPXY) found in multiple NaV and ENaC proteins; ubiquitination of these proteins is mediated by the HECT domain of NEDD4 and results in their internalization and removal from the plasma membrane. Research studies have shown that mutation of the PY motifs in ENaC proteins is associated with Liddle's syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of hypertension (5). In addition to targeting sodium channels, NEDD4L has also been shown to negatively regulate TGF-β signaling by targeting Smad2 for degradation (6). Mouse and human NEDD4 are rapidly cleaved by caspase proteins during apoptosis, although the significance of this cleavage is not clear (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neural precursor expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) was originally identified as a gene that is highly expressed in the early mouse embryonic central nervous system (1). Subsequently, a family of NEDD4-like proteins have been defined that includes seven members in humans (2). NEDD4 and NEDD4-like (NEDD4L) proteins contain multiple functional domains including a calcium-dependent phospholipid and membrane binding domain (C2 domain), two to four protein binding domains (WW domains), and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase domain (HECT domain). NEDD4 and NEDD4L have been shown to downregulate both neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaVs) and epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in response to increased intracellular Na+ concentrations (3,4). The WW domains of NEDD4 bind to PY motifs (amino acid sequence PPXY) found in multiple NaV and ENaC proteins; ubiquitination of these proteins is mediated by the HECT domain of NEDD4 and results in their internalization and removal from the plasma membrane. Research studies have shown that mutation of the PY motifs in ENaC proteins is associated with Liddle's syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of hypertension (5). In addition to targeting sodium channels, NEDD4L has also been shown to negatively regulate TGF-β signaling by targeting Smad2 for degradation (6). Mouse and human NEDD4 are rapidly cleaved by caspase proteins during apoptosis, although the significance of this cleavage is not clear (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Angiotensinogen (AGT) is the primary precursor of angiotensins, peptide hormones that play a central role in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (1-3). AGT is a secreted protein synthesized primarily by the liver and secreted into circulation. Upon binding to renin, the amino terminal fragment of AGT is cleaved and released as a decapeptide hormone termed angiotensin 1 (Ang I). Ang I is subsequently processed by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to generate angiotensin II (Ang II), which acts on AT1 and AT2 receptors in the central nervous system to increase production of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH), while promoting vasoconstriction in the peripheral circulation (4). Aberrant upregulation of Ang II has been associated with numerous clinical conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial hypertrophy, and obesity (5-7). Alternative cleavage products of Ang I (e.g., Ang 1-7) can also be generated by ACE2 cleavage, some of which display biological functions that are distinct from Ang II (8). Treatments that target the RAS (e.g., ACE inhibitors) are consequently of significant importance in the treatment of hypertensive and hypertensive-related disorders(5-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase (SGK) is a serine/threonine kinase closely related to Akt (1). SGK is rapidly induced in response to a variety of stimuli, including serum, glucocorticoid, follicle stimulating hormone, osmotic shock, and mineralocorticoids. SGK activation can be accomplished via HGF PI3K-dependent pathways and by integrin-mediated PI3K-independent pathways (2,3). Induction and activation of SGK has been implicated in activating the modulation of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulation (4-6). SGK also plays an important role in activating certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting its involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability, and renal sodium excretion (2). SGK is negatively regulated by ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor (NHERF1 or EBP-50) is one of several related PDZ domain-containing proteins (1). NHERF1 was first identified as a necessary cofactor for cyclic AMP-associated inhibition of Na+/ H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) (2). NHERF1 is a multifunctional adaptor protein that interacts with receptors and ion transporters via its PDZ domains, and with the ERM family of proteins, including merlin, via its carboxy-terminus (2,3). NHERF1 may play an important role in breast cancer. Estrogen has been found to induce NHERF1 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells (2,3). Furthermore, NHERF1 has been shown to bind to PDGFR, which is activated in breast carcinomas. NHERF1 has been found to promote the formation of a ternary complex containing PTEN, NHERF1, and PDGFR. Therefore, NHERF1 may function to recruit PTEN to PDGFR to inhibit the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling in normal cells; this mechanism may be disrupted in cancer (4). NHERF1 also binds to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), which functions as an ion channel and has disease-causing mutations in cystic fibrosis (5). Other proposed functions of NHERF1 include testicular differentiation, endosomal recycling, membrane targeting, protein sorting, and trafficking (6).