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Human Erythrocyte Maturation

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play roles in a variety of developmental and adult biological settings (1). The basic (b) domain of bHLH transcription factors allows association with DNA, while the HLH domain facilitates the mono- and heterodimeric interactions required for efficient DNA binding (1). TAL1, also known as SCL, is a bHLH transcription factor that plays an essential role in the generation of embryonic hematopoietic stem cells (2), and is required for maturation of erythroid and megakaryocytic lineages in the adult (3). TAL1 interacts with Lim-domain containing proteins LMO2 and Ldb1, and has been found in complexes with these proteins as well as the hematopoietic transcription factor GATA-1 (4). Both TAL1 and LMO2 have been associated with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) (5,6). TAL1 activity is essential for both hematopoiesis and neurogenesis (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: XPB and XPD are ATPase/helicase subunits of the TFIIH complex that are involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER) to remove lesions and photoproducts generated by UV light (1). XPB and XPD are 3’-5’ and 5’-3’ DNA helicases, respectively, that play a role in opening of the DNA damage site to facilitate repair (2,3). XPB and XPD both play an important role in maintaining genomic stability, and researchers have linked mutations of these proteins to Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) and Trichothiodystrophy (TTD). XP patients have abnormalities in skin pigmentation and are highly susceptible to skin cancers, while TTD patients exhibit symptoms such as brittle hair, neurological abnormalities, and mild photosensitivity (4). In addition to their role in NER, XPB and XPD are involved in transcription initiation as part of the TFIIH core complex (5). The helicase activity of XPB unwinds DNA around the transcription start site to facilitate RNA polymerase II promoter clearance and initiation of transcription (6). XPD plays a structural role linking core TFIIH components with the cdk-activating kinase (CAK) complex that phosphorylates the C-terminus of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, leading to transcription initiation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first, and rate-limiting, step of the pentose phosphate pathway (1). The NADPH generated from this reaction is essential to protect cells from oxidative stress (1). Research studies have shown that p53 interacts with G6PD and inhibits its activity, therefore suppressing glucose consumption through the pentose phosphate pathway (2). In cancer cells with p53 mutations, the increased glucose consumption is directed towards increased biosynthesis, which is critical for cancer cell proliferation (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) catalyses the first, and rate-limiting, step of the pentose phosphate pathway (1). The NADPH generated from this reaction is essential to protect cells from oxidative stress (1). Research studies have shown that p53 interacts with G6PD and inhibits its activity, therefore suppressing glucose consumption through the pentose phosphate pathway (2). In cancer cells with p53 mutations, the increased glucose consumption is directed towards increased biosynthesis, which is critical for cancer cell proliferation (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Inhibitor of DNA-binding-2 (Id2) is a member of the Id proteins which belong to the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein family. The Id protein functions by binding to specific transcription factors and preventing their dimerization and DNA binding (1-3). Id2 interacts with a wide variety of transcription factors including E proteins (5), TCS (4), Pax (6) and the tumor suppressor Rb (1). Id2 has been shown to be important in regulating cellular differentiation, proliferation, development and tumorgenesis (7-9). In tumor cells, increased levels of Id2 functionally inactivate Rb, leading to cellular transformation and cancer (10,11). Id2 is therefore a promising therapeutic target for treatment of cancer (12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The unconjugated FoxO3a (75D8) Rabbit mAb #2497 reacts with human, mouse and rat Fox03a protein. CST expects that FoxO3a (75D8) Rabbit mAb (Biotinylated) will also recognize Fox03a in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The zinc finger transcription factor GATA-2 is widely expressed and plays an essential role in many developmental processes (1). Studies on GATA-2 knockout mice indicate that this protein is required in hematopoiesis (2). GATA-2 also inhibits the differentiation of white (3) and brown adipocytes (4) and has been shown to suppress the proliferation of neuronal progenitor cells (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Pig

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Axl siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Axl expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® FoxO3a siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit FoxO3a expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® FoxO3a siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit FoxO3a expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).

$489
96 assays
1 Kit
The PathScan® Total Axl Sandwich ELISA Kit is a solid phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects endogenous levels of total Axl protein. An Axl mouse antibody has been coated on the microwells. After incubation with cell lysates, Axl protein (phospho and nonphospho) is captured by the coated antibody. Following extensive washing, an Axl rabbit antibody is added to detect captured Axl protein. Anti-rabbit IgG, HRP-linked antibody is then used to recognize the bound detection antibody. HRP substrate TMB is added to develop color. The magnitude of the absorbance for this developed color is proportional to the quantity of total Axl protein.Antibodies in kit are custom formulations specific to kit.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Axl, Sky, and Mer are three members of a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) family that share a conserved intracellular tyrosine kinase domain and an extracellular domain similar to those seen in cell adhesion molecules. These RTKs bind the vitamin K-dependent protein growth-arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), which is structurally related to the protein S anticoagulation factor (1). Upon binding to its receptor, Gas6 activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and its downstream targets Akt and S6K, as well as NF-κB (2,3). A large body of evidence supports a role for Gas6/Axl signaling in cell growth and survival in normal and cancer cells (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is essential for the cellular response to hypoxia (1,2). Under normoxia conditions, the α subunit of HIF is ubiquitinated by von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) protein and is degraded in the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway (1,2). Hypoxia inhibits the degradation of the α subunit, which leads to its stabilization (1,2). HIF, in turn, regulates the transcription of a variety of genes that respond to hypoxia conditions (1,2). There are several isoforms of the HIF α subunit (2). Studies have found that HIF-1α and HIF-2α expression is increased in some human cancers (2). HIF-1α has both pro- and anti-proliferative activities, whereas HIF-2α does not possess anti-proliferative activity (2). Therefore, HIF-2α likely plays an important role in tumorigenesis (2,3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Forkhead family of transcription factors is involved in tumorigenesis of rhabdomyosarcoma and acute leukemias (1-3). Within the family, three members (FoxO1, FoxO4, and FoxO3a) have sequence similarity to the nematode orthologue DAF-16, which mediates signaling via a pathway involving IGFR1, PI3K, and Akt (4-6). Active forkhead members act as tumor suppressors by promoting cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Increased expression of any FoxO member results in the activation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27 Kip1. Forkhead transcription factors also play a part in TGF-β-mediated upregulation of p21 Cip1, a process negatively regulated through PI3K (7). Increased proliferation results when forkhead transcription factors are inactivated through phosphorylation by Akt at Thr24, Ser256, and Ser319, which results in nuclear export and inhibition of transcription factor activity (8). Forkhead transcription factors can also be inhibited by the deacetylase sirtuin (SirT1) (9).