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Human Glial Cell Proliferation

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2, also called CAKβ, RAFTK and CADTK, is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase structurally related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (1-4). Pyk2 is predominantly expressed in cells derived from hematopoietic lineages and in the central nervous system. Pyk2 is one of the signaling mediators for the G-protein-coupled receptors and MAP kinase signaling pathway. It plays an important role in cell spreading and migration (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2, also called CAKβ, RAFTK and CADTK, is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase structurally related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (1-4). Pyk2 is predominantly expressed in cells derived from hematopoietic lineages and in the central nervous system. Pyk2 is one of the signaling mediators for the G-protein-coupled receptors and MAP kinase signaling pathway. It plays an important role in cell spreading and migration (5-7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2, also called CAKβ, RAFTK and CADTK, is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase structurally related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (1-4). Pyk2 is predominantly expressed in cells derived from hematopoietic lineages and in the central nervous system. Pyk2 is one of the signaling mediators for the G-protein-coupled receptors and MAP kinase signaling pathway. It plays an important role in cell spreading and migration (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2, also called CAKβ, RAFTK and CADTK, is a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase structurally related to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (1-4). Pyk2 is predominantly expressed in cells derived from hematopoietic lineages and in the central nervous system. Pyk2 is one of the signaling mediators for the G-protein-coupled receptors and MAP kinase signaling pathway. It plays an important role in cell spreading and migration (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Heregulin (HRG), also called neuregulin (NRG1), neu differentiation factor (NDF) or glial growth factor-2 (GGF-2), is a soluble growth factor synthesized as a transmembrane precursor molecule. Metalloproteinases and other proteases catalyze the cleavage of its extracellular domain which is then released and functions as a ligand for ErbB3 and ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase. The signaling pathways of HRG-ErbB3/ErbB4 are involved in regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion, and survival of both normal and malignant tissues (1,2). Abnormality of HRG-ErbB signaling leads to development of a variety of human diseases.HRG family has four isoforms including HRG-1, -2, -3 and -4, which are derived from alternative exon splicing. Moreover, they showed various tissue expression and biological activities (3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated LEF1 (C12A5) Rabbit mAb #2230.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated LEF1 (C12A5) Rabbit mAb #2230
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated LEF1 (C12A5) Rabbit mAb #2230.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: LEF1 and TCF are members of the high mobility group (HMG) DNA binding protein family of transcription factors that consists of the following: Lymphoid Enhancer Factor 1 (LEF1), T Cell Factor 1 (TCF1/TCF7), TCF3/TCF7L1, and TCF4/TCF7L2 (1). LEF1 and TCF1/TCF7 were originally identified as important factors regulating early lymphoid development (2) and act downstream in Wnt signaling. LEF1 and TCF bind to Wnt response elements to provide docking sites for β-catenin, which translocates to the nucleus to promote the transcription of target genes upon activation of Wnt signaling (3). LEF1 and TCF are dynamically expressed during development and aberrant activation of the Wnt signaling pathway is involved in many types of cancers including colon cancer (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Translocator protein (TSPO) is an 18 kDa mitochondrial drug- and cholesterol-transporting protein involved in steroid hormone synthesis and mitochondrial homeostasis in a variety of cell types (1,2). Originally thought to play a role exclusively in steroid synthesis in steroidogenic cells, subsequent research studies have implicated TSPO in a variety of pathologies in a broad range of tissues including progression of breast cancer, neuroinflammation, and neurological disorders (1,3-5). TSPO was first identified by its ability to bind benzodiazepines in peripheral tissues and glial cells, hence its alternate name Peripheral Benzodiazepine Receptor (PBR).TSPO has been shown to modulate an array of cellular functions; it is critical for steroidogenesis, modulates mitochondrial function and metabolism, and plays a role in both cell proliferation and apoptosis (6-8). TSPO is found in the outer mitochondrial membrane where it coordinates with Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Factor (StAR) to transport cholesterol into the mitochondria and is critical for steroidogenesis and tumor progression (9,10). This is illustrated by studies that show the non-aggressive, hormone-dependent cell line, MCF7, expresses low levels of TSPO whereas the more aggressive, metastatic, and hormone-independent cell line, MDA-MB-231, expresses high levels of TSPO (10). This study, and others, suggest that TSPO may be an important regulator of hormone-dependent tumor progression. Numerous investigations have concluded that due to its high affinity for pharmacological compounds and up-regulation in disease, TSPO is an attractive target for diagnosis and treatment of tumor progression, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurological/psychiatric disorders (11-15).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Hedgehog proteins (Hh) are secreted signaling proteins that play many roles during animal development. Aberrant Hh signaling activity can be associated with numerous birth defects and uncontrolled Hh pathway activation is linked to the development of several types of cancers (1-2). The three identified vertebrate Hh genes are Sonic (Shh), Indian (Ihh) and Desert (Dhh), all of which have distinct as well as overlapping roles (3-5). Hh proteins are synthesized as 45 kDa precursors that undergo auto-cleavage to generate a 19 kDa amino-terminal peptide (Hh-N) and a carboxy-terminal peptide (Hh-C). The amino-terminal peptide becomes covalently attached to a cholesterol molecule at its carboxy terminus and acetylated at its amino terminus. This doubly modified Hh-N peptide is released from cells and responsible for all known Hedgehog signaling activity (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neurofibromin is a Ras-specific GTPase activating protein (RasGAP), down-regulating Ras signaling (1). Studies have shown, that mutations in NF1 inhibit its activity, resulting in benign tumors such as neurofibromas, which may form along nerves throughout the body resulting in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) (2). NF1 is one of the most common autosomal dominant diseases however it remains unclear how mutation of NF1 may lead to other features of NF1 (3). In addition, NF1 mutations occur in 5-10% of human sporadic malignancies such as glioblastomas, lung adenocarcinomas, melanomas, breast and ovarian cancers, and acute myeloid leukemias. Mutations in NF1 can cause resistance to therapies including chemotherapy and radiation therapy (3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The c-Abl proto-oncogene encodes a nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinase that is ubiquitously expressed and highly conserved in metazoan evolution. c-Abl protein is distributed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of cells. It is implicated in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and stress responses (1-3). c-Abl kinase activity is increased in vivo by diverse physiological stimuli including integrin activation; PDGF stimulation; and binding to c-Jun, Nck, and RFX1 (2,4). The in vivo mechanism for regulation of c-Abl kinase activity is not completely understood. Tyr245 is located in the linker region between the SH2 and catalytic domains. This positioning is conserved among Abl family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr245 is involved in the activation of c-Abl kinase (5). In addition, phosphorylation at Tyr412, which is located in the kinase activation loop of c-Abl, is required for kinase activity (6).