Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: Na(+)/glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) is one of the two main glucose transporters in the kidney proximal convoluted tubule. It is activated by Protein Kinase A and Protein Kinase C, likely through phosphorylation of Ser624 (1,2). SGLT2 is responsible for the majority of glucose reabsorption in the kidney (3,4), and mutations in SGLT2 are known to cause familial renal glucosuria (5,6). SGLT2 is a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. Inhibitors of SGLT2 have been developed in order to treat people with type 2 diabetes (7).
Application Methods: Western Blotting
Background: Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) is an active glucose transporter, which utilizes sodium gradients to transport glucose into cells independent of extracellular glucose concentration. SGLT1 is an essential glucose active transport protein that helps maintain high intracellular glucose levels (1). Expression of SGLT1 is mainly seen in intestinal and kidney epithelial cells, although a recent study also characterized SGLT1 expression in cardiac myocytes (2). Abnormal SGLT1 expression may be associated with cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus and myocardial ischaemia (2). Mutation of the corresponding SGLT1 gene can result in congenital glucose/galactose malabsorption, which can lead to neonatal diarrhea and subsequent death if left untreated (3). A recent study of the role of EGFR in cancer cell survival indicates that EGFR can prevent autophagic cell death independent of EGFR kinase activity because the receptor interacts with and stabilizes SLGT1 to maintain basal intracellular glucose levels (4).