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Human Peptide Receptor Activity

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GPR37 is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that was originally identified as an orphan receptor highly expressed in the brain and testis (1). It shares significant homology with the receptors of endothelin and bombesin peptides (1). Neuropeptide head activator from the invertebrate Hydra was identified as a high-affinity ligand of GPR37 (2), however, to date, no mammalian ortholog of this peptide that could represent an endogenous GPR37 ligand has been identified. Recently, GPR37 was deorphanized as the receptor for the endogenous peptides prosaptide and prosaposin (3). GPR37 is a substrate of the E3 ubiquitin ligase parkin, and is often referred to as “parkin-associated endothelin-like receptor,” or “Pael-R” (4). GPR37 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s Disease as it aggregates in the substantia nigra of some PD patients (4,5). Interestingly, prosaposin exerts neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and gliotrophic actions (6), and GPR37 was identified as a negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination (7), suggesting that it could represent a potential target for demyelinating pathologies.

$159
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$309
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to PerCP and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$249
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to redFluor™ 710 and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$139
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to FITC and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$299
100 tests
500 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to APC-Cy7® and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans. These cell surface proteins are responsible for the regulation of antigen-specific immunity in humans. HLA genes are highly polymorphic, allowing them to fine-tune the adaptive immune response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (HLA-A, B, and C) present small peptide antigens from inside the cell, approximately 8 to 10 amino acids in length, to CD8+ T lymphocytes in order to activate a cytotoxic T cell response. HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (HLA-DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell, approximately 15 to 24 residues in length, to CD4+ T-helper cells, which in turn secrete cytokines and stimulate B cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement system (1,2).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) molecules are heterodimeric, transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells. Expression can also be induced on other cell types through interferon-γ signaling (1). Prior to being displayed on the cell membrane, MHC class II molecules are loaded with exogenous peptide antigens approximately 15-24 amino acids in length that were derived from endocytosed extracellular proteins digested in the lysosome (2). Antigen-presentation through MHC class II is required for T cell activation during the immune response to extracellular pathogens (2). In humans, the MHC class II protein complex is encoded by the human leukocyte antigen gene complex (HLA). HLAs corresponding to MHC class II are HLA-DP, HLA-DM, HLA-DOA, HLA-DOB, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) is a widely expressed, membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme that breaks down peptides during digestion, cleaves cell surface antigens during antigen presentation, and acts as a receptor for human viruses, including several coronaviruses. This multifunctional protein is implicated in the regulation of many biological processes, including angiogenesis, cell proliferation, cell migration, inflammation and immune response (1,2). APN was originally identified as the cell surface antigen CD13, which is expressed in myeloid lineage hematopoietic cells and myeloid leukemia (3). Identified substrates of aminopeptidase N include the angiotensin I-III peptide hormones, the opioid peptide met-enkephalin, and cytokines MCP-1 and MIP-1 (4). Abnormal APN protein expression is seen in various forms of cancer, with high APN expression associated with poor survival in colon cancer and non-small cell lung cancer and silenced APN expression related to poor prognosis in prostate cancer (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Aminopeptidase N (APN, CD13) is a widely expressed, membrane-bound proteolytic enzyme that breaks down peptides during digestion, cleaves cell surface antigens during antigen presentation, and acts as a receptor for human viruses, including several coronaviruses. This multifunctional protein is implicated in the regulation of many biological processes, including angiogenesis, cell proliferation, cell migration, inflammation and immune response (1,2). APN was originally identified as the cell surface antigen CD13, which is expressed in myeloid lineage hematopoietic cells and myeloid leukemia (3). Identified substrates of aminopeptidase N include the angiotensin I-III peptide hormones, the opioid peptide met-enkephalin, and cytokines MCP-1 and MIP-1 (4). Abnormal APN protein expression is seen in various forms of cancer, with high APN expression associated with poor survival in colon cancer and non-small cell lung cancer and silenced APN expression related to poor prognosis in prostate cancer (5-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Prolactin receptor (PRLR) is a single-pass transmembrane receptor that mediates the actions of prolactin, a peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. PRLR is a type 1 cytokine receptor that is best known for promoting lactation in mammals, but which is also implicated in osmoregulation, metabolism, and immune system function (1). Research studies suggest that PRLR activation may promote tumor growth (2). Prolactin signaling via PRLR can activate multiple signal transduction pathways in breast cancer cells, including the Jak/Stat, PI3K/Akt, and MAPK pathways, leading to both pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic downstream effects (3,4). Nine isoforms of PRLR have been identified, with the canonical (long) isoform primarily responsible for the pro-oncogenic effects of PRLR in some cancer cell lines (3). Much less is known about the functions of the other prolactin receptor isoforms. Defining the precise role of PRLR in promoting growth of breast cancer and other tumor types remains an area of active investigation (2).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: HLA-G (HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G) is a non-classical MHC molecule expressed by trophoblasts in placenta, thymic epithelial cells, and some tumors. Alternative splicing leads to generation of at least six isoforms, four that are transmembrane proteins and two that are soluble (1-4). It is an inhibitory molecule involved in immune tolerance and escape, originally studied for its role in maternal tolerance of the fetus during pregnancy (1-5). HLA-G binds ILT2, ILT4, and KIR2DL4, playing a role in the regulation of natural killer, T, and monocyte/macrophage cells (4-5). Its involvement in evasion of immune response makes it a potential target for immunotherapy (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Annexin V, also known as PAP-1 or Lipocortin V, is a ~30 kDa protein that binds to phospholipids in a calcium-dependent manner (1). All annexins contain a putative PKC binding site, but only annexin V has been identified as an inhibitor of this pathway (2). It may also signal, by direct interaction with VEGFR2 receptor, in the regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation (3). Annexin V preferentially binds phosphatidylserine, in competition with prothrombin, leading to inhibition of blood coagulation at sites of injury preceding contact between lipid components and coagulation factors that initiate thrombosis (4-6). The ability of Annexin V to bind specifically and robustly to phosphatidylserine makes it an attractive reagent in detecting apoptotic cells (7). Annexin V is inducible by glucocorticoids and can be phosphorylated by tyrosine and serine/threonine kinases (8). It is thought to block production of mediators of inflammation, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes by inhibiting the release of arachidonic acid from membranes by phospholipase A2 (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (Jak2 (D2E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #3230).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases (Jak1, Jak2, Jak3, and Tyk2) are activated by ligands binding to a number of associated cytokine receptors (1). Upon cytokine receptor activation, Jak proteins become autophosphorylated and phosphorylate their associated receptors to provide multiple binding sites for signaling proteins. These associated signaling proteins, such as Stats (2), Shc (3), insulin receptor substrates (4), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) (5), typically contain SH2 or other phospho-tyrosine-binding domains.