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Human Regulation of Cytokinesis

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. Aurora kinase functional influences span from G2 phase to cytokinesis and may be involved in key cell cycle events such as centrosome duplication, chromosome bi-orientation and segregation, cleavage furrow positioning, and ingression (3). Aurora A is detected at the centrosomes, along mitotic spindle microtubules, and in the cytoplasm of mitotically proliferating cells. Aurora A protein levels are low during G1 and S phases and peak during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 in its catalytic domain increases kinase activity. Aurora A is involved in centrosome separation, maturation, and spindle assembly and stability. Expression of Aurora B protein also peaks during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle; Aurora B kinase activity peaks at the transition from metaphase to the end of mitosis. Aurora B associates with chromosomes during prophase prior to relocalizing to the spindle at anaphase. Aurora B regulates chromosome segregation through the control of microtubule-kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis. Expression of both Aurora A and Aurora B during the G2/M phase transition is tightly coordinated with histone H3 phosphorylation (4,5); research investigators have observed overexpression of these kinases in a variety of human cancers (2,4). Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. Although typical Aurora C expression is limited to the testis, research studies report overexpression of Aurora C is detected in various cancer cell lines (6).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Aurora A (Thr288)/Aurora B (Thr232)/Aurora C (Thr198) (D13A11) XP® Rabbit mAb #2914.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. Aurora kinase functional influences span from G2 phase to cytokinesis and may be involved in key cell cycle events such as centrosome duplication, chromosome bi-orientation and segregation, cleavage furrow positioning, and ingression (3). Aurora A is detected at the centrosomes, along mitotic spindle microtubules, and in the cytoplasm of mitotically proliferating cells. Aurora A protein levels are low during G1 and S phases and peak during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 in its catalytic domain increases kinase activity. Aurora A is involved in centrosome separation, maturation, and spindle assembly and stability. Expression of Aurora B protein also peaks during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle; Aurora B kinase activity peaks at the transition from metaphase to the end of mitosis. Aurora B associates with chromosomes during prophase prior to relocalizing to the spindle at anaphase. Aurora B regulates chromosome segregation through the control of microtubule-kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis. Expression of both Aurora A and Aurora B during the G2/M phase transition is tightly coordinated with histone H3 phosphorylation (4,5); research investigators have observed overexpression of these kinases in a variety of human cancers (2,4). Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. Although typical Aurora C expression is limited to the testis, research studies report overexpression of Aurora C is detected in various cancer cell lines (6).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Aurora A (Thr288)/Aurora B (Thr232)/Aurora C (Thr198) (D13A11) XP® Rabbit mAb  #2914.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. Aurora kinase functional influences span from G2 phase to cytokinesis and may be involved in key cell cycle events such as centrosome duplication, chromosome bi-orientation and segregation, cleavage furrow positioning, and ingression (3). Aurora A is detected at the centrosomes, along mitotic spindle microtubules, and in the cytoplasm of mitotically proliferating cells. Aurora A protein levels are low during G1 and S phases and peak during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 in its catalytic domain increases kinase activity. Aurora A is involved in centrosome separation, maturation, and spindle assembly and stability. Expression of Aurora B protein also peaks during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle; Aurora B kinase activity peaks at the transition from metaphase to the end of mitosis. Aurora B associates with chromosomes during prophase prior to relocalizing to the spindle at anaphase. Aurora B regulates chromosome segregation through the control of microtubule-kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis. Expression of both Aurora A and Aurora B during the G2/M phase transition is tightly coordinated with histone H3 phosphorylation (4,5); research investigators have observed overexpression of these kinases in a variety of human cancers (2,4). Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. Although typical Aurora C expression is limited to the testis, research studies report overexpression of Aurora C is detected in various cancer cell lines (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Three distinct types of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have been characterized. Unlike other PI3Ks, PI3K class III catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol at the D3 position, producing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP3) (1). PI3K class III is the mammalian homolog of Vps34, first identified in yeast. PI3K class III interacts with the regular subunit p150, the mammalian homolog of Vps15, which regulates cellular membrane association through myristoylation (2,3). PIP3 recruits several proteins with FYVE or PX domains to membranes regulating vesicular transport and protein sorting (4). Moreover, PI3K class III has been shown to regulate autophagy, trimeric G-protein signaling, and the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Three distinct types of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have been characterized. Unlike other PI3Ks, PI3K class III catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol at the D3 position, producing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP3) (1). PI3K class III is the mammalian homolog of Vps34, first identified in yeast. PI3K class III interacts with the regular subunit p150, the mammalian homolog of Vps15, which regulates cellular membrane association through myristoylation (2,3). PIP3 recruits several proteins with FYVE or PX domains to membranes regulating vesicular transport and protein sorting (4). Moreover, PI3K class III has been shown to regulate autophagy, trimeric G-protein signaling, and the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Three distinct types of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have been characterized. Unlike other PI3Ks, PI3K class III catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol at the D3 position, producing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP3) (1). PI3K class III is the mammalian homolog of Vps34, first identified in yeast. PI3K class III interacts with the regular subunit p150, the mammalian homolog of Vps15, which regulates cellular membrane association through myristoylation (2,3). PIP3 recruits several proteins with FYVE or PX domains to membranes regulating vesicular transport and protein sorting (4). Moreover, PI3K class III has been shown to regulate autophagy, trimeric G-protein signaling, and the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Three distinct types of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) have been characterized. Unlike other PI3Ks, PI3K class III catalyzes the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol at the D3 position, producing phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PIP3) (1). PI3K class III is the mammalian homolog of Vps34, first identified in yeast. PI3K class III interacts with the regular subunit p150, the mammalian homolog of Vps15, which regulates cellular membrane association through myristoylation (2,3). PIP3 recruits several proteins with FYVE or PX domains to membranes regulating vesicular transport and protein sorting (4). Moreover, PI3K class III has been shown to regulate autophagy, trimeric G-protein signaling, and the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The breast cancer susceptibility proteins BRCA1 and BRCA2 are frequently mutated in cases of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers and have roles in multiple processes related to DNA damage, repair, cell cycle progression, transcription, ubiquitination, and apoptosis (1-4). BRCA2 has been shown to be required for localization of Rad51 to sites of double stranded breaks (DSBs) in DNA, and cells lacking BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot repair DSBs through the Rad51-dependent process of homologous recombination (HR) (5). Numerous DNA damage-induced phosphorylation sites on BRCA1 have been identified, including Ser988, 1189, 1387, 1423, 1457, 1524, and 1542, and kinases activated in a cell cycle-dependent manner, including Aurora A and CDK2, can also phosphorylate BRCA1 at Ser308 and Ser1497, respectively (6-10). Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of BRCA2 at Ser3291 by CDKs has been proposed as a mechanism to switch off HR as cells progress beyond S-phase by blocking the carboxy terminal Rad51 binding site (11).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Aurora A (AIK) is a cell cycle-regulated Ser/Thr protein kinase that is overexpressed in many tumor cell lines (1-3). Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 within the kinase activation loop results in a significant increase in its activity and may target the protein for proteasomal degradation during mitosis (4). The closely-related kinase Aurora B (AIM1) has been implicated in multiple mitotic events (5), and siRNA silencing of Aurora B expression results in reduced histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromosome alignment/segregation, and altered survivin localization (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Centrins are small conserved microtubule nucleating proteins localized to centrosomes, also known as microtubule organizing centers (MTOC), in eukaryotic cells. Centrin-1 is associated with cells that have cilia and flagella, whereas centrin-2 and -3 are ubiquitously expressed and important in centrosome duplication during cell division, as well as the structure and function of the MTOC (1-3). Human centrin-2 has also been shown to localize to nuclear pores and to have a role in regulation of mRNA export (4). The yeast ortholog of centrin-2, CDC31, plays a part in control of protein degradation and sensitivity to DNA damage (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Beclin-1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Beclin-1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Beclin-1 siRNA II from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Beclin-1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that drive directional, microtubule-dependent intracellular transport of membrane-bound organelles and other macromolecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids). The intracellular transport functions of KIFs are fundamentally important for a variety of cellular functions, including mitotic and meiotic division, motility/migration, hormone and neurotransmitter release, and differentiation (1-4). Disruptions to KIF-mediated intracellular transport have been linked with a variety of pathologies, ranging from tumorigenesis to defects in higher order brain function such as learning and memory (4-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: CXCR5 is a G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the chemokine receptor subfamily (1). Upon binding of its ligand, the chemokine CXCL13, CXCR5 initiates multiple intracellular signaling pathways that regulate cell proliferation, survival, and migration (2). CXCR5 is expressed in both mature B cells and follicular helper T cells, and respond to CXCL13 gradient to control lymphocyte migration towards secondary lymphoid tissues (3). CXCR5 has also been shown to be highly expressed in primary breast tumors, in correlation with their propensity to grow and metastasize (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of proteins activated in response to nutrient deprivation and in neurodegenerative conditions (1). One of the proteins critical to this process is Beclin-1, the mammalian orthologue of the yeast autophagy protein Apg6/Vps30 (2). Beclin-1 can complement defects in yeast autophagy caused by loss of Apg6 and can also stimulate autophagy when overexpressed in mammalian cells (3). Mammalian Beclin-1 was originally isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen for Bcl-2 interacting proteins and has been shown to interact with Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, but not with Bax or Bak (4). While Beclin-1 is generally ubiquitously expressed, research studies have shown it is monoallelically deleted in 40-75% of sporadic human breast and ovarian cancers (5). Beclin-1 is localized within cytoplasmic structures including the mitochondria, although overexpression of Beclin-1 reveals some nuclear staining and CRM1-dependent nuclear export (6). Investigators have demonstrated that Beclin-1-/- mice die early in embryogenesis and Beclin-1-/+ mice have a high incidence of spontaneous tumors. Stem cells from the null mice demonstrate an altered autophagic response, although responses to apoptosis appeared normal (7). Researchers have also found that overexpression of Beclin-1 in virally infected neurons in vivo resulted in significant protection against Sindbis virus-induced disease and neuronal apoptosis (4).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Aurora B/AIM1 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Aurora B/AIM1 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Aurora kinases belong to a highly conserved family of mitotic serine/threonine kinases with three members identified among mammals: Aurora A, B, and C (1,2). Studies on the temporal expression pattern and subcellular localization of Aurora kinases in mitotic cells suggest an association with mitotic structure. Aurora kinase functional influences span from G2 phase to cytokinesis and may be involved in key cell cycle events such as centrosome duplication, chromosome bi-orientation and segregation, cleavage furrow positioning, and ingression (3). Aurora A is detected at the centrosomes, along mitotic spindle microtubules, and in the cytoplasm of mitotically proliferating cells. Aurora A protein levels are low during G1 and S phases and peak during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 in its catalytic domain increases kinase activity. Aurora A is involved in centrosome separation, maturation, and spindle assembly and stability. Expression of Aurora B protein also peaks during the G2/M phase of the cell cycle; Aurora B kinase activity peaks at the transition from metaphase to the end of mitosis. Aurora B associates with chromosomes during prophase prior to relocalizing to the spindle at anaphase. Aurora B regulates chromosome segregation through the control of microtubule-kinetochore attachment and cytokinesis. Expression of both Aurora A and Aurora B during the G2/M phase transition is tightly coordinated with histone H3 phosphorylation (4,5); research investigators have observed overexpression of these kinases in a variety of human cancers (2,4). Aurora C localizes to the centrosome from anaphase to cytokinesis and both mRNA and protein levels peak during G2/M phase. Although typical Aurora C expression is limited to the testis, research studies report overexpression of Aurora C is detected in various cancer cell lines (6).