Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Human Regulation of Immunoglobulin Secretion

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD40 ligand (CD40L), also known as CD154, TRAP, and gp39, is the ligand for the TNF receptor family member CD40 (1-6). CD40L is expressed either as a soluble cytokine or as a homotrimeric transmembrane protein. CD40L primarily expressed on the surface of T-cells, but has also been reported in blood platelets, mast cells, basophils, NK cells, and B-cells. It plays an important role in stimulating B-cell cell proliferation and survival and promotes immunoglobulin class switching and secretion of IgE (7). Signals generated by CD40 vary depending on cell type and include activation of MAPK pathways as well as NF-κB (8-11). Mutations within the CD40L gene are associated with X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome characterized by high serum levels of IgM and decreased levels of other isotypes (12). The CD40L/CD40 pathway is an important area of interest in the study of cancer, vascular diseases, and inflammatory disorders (13-15).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Following protein synthesis, secretory, intra-organellar, and transmembrane proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that counteracts compromised protein folding (1). The transmembrane serine/threonine kinase IRE1, originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a proximal sensor for the UPR that transmits the unfolded protein signal across the ER membrane (2-4). The human homolog IRE1α was later identified and is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues (5). Upon activation of the unfolded protein response, IRE1α splices X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) mRNA through an unconventional mechanism using its endoribonuclease activity (6). This reaction converts XBP-1 from an unspliced XBP-1u isoform to the spliced XBP-1s isoform, which is a potent transcriptional activator that induces expression of many UPR responsive genes (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Following protein synthesis, secretory, intra-organellar, and transmembrane proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that counteracts compromised protein folding (1). The transmembrane serine/threonine kinase IRE1, originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a proximal sensor for the UPR that transmits the unfolded protein signal across the ER membrane (2-4). The human homolog IRE1α was later identified and is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues (5). Upon activation of the unfolded protein response, IRE1α splices X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) mRNA through an unconventional mechanism using its endoribonuclease activity (6). This reaction converts XBP-1 from an unspliced XBP-1u isoform to the spliced XBP-1s isoform, which is a potent transcriptional activator that induces expression of many UPR responsive genes (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Following protein synthesis, secretory, intra-organellar, and transmembrane proteins translocate into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they are post-translationally modified and properly folded. The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER triggers an adaptive mechanism known as the unfolded protein response (UPR) that counteracts compromised protein folding (1). The transmembrane serine/threonine kinase IRE1, originally identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a proximal sensor for the UPR that transmits the unfolded protein signal across the ER membrane (2-4). The human homolog IRE1α was later identified and is ubiquitously expressed in human tissues (5). Upon activation of the unfolded protein response, IRE1α splices X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1) mRNA through an unconventional mechanism using its endoribonuclease activity (6). This reaction converts XBP-1 from an unspliced XBP-1u isoform to the spliced XBP-1s isoform, which is a potent transcriptional activator that induces expression of many UPR responsive genes (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$345
100 µg
Neutralizing antibodies can be used to inhibit normal biological function through their binding to biological molecules. These reagents can be used to determine the effects that a particular molecule has in biological systems. TNF-α has known functions of cell cytotoxicity, cell activation, and apoptosis in different cell types. Human TNF-α Neutralizing (D1B4) Rabbit mAb has been shown to neutralize the cytotoxic effects of TNF-α in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells. Utilizing 1 ng/ml of hTNF-α #8902 and 1 µg/ml of actinomycin D, Human TNF-α Neutralizing (D1B4) Rabbit mAb rescued L-929 cells with an ND50 in the range of 4-12 ng/ml.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Acute phase response is induced by interleukin-6 (IL-6) produced by T cells, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial and other cells (1,2). IL-6 induces proliferation or differentiation in many cell types including B cells, thymocytes and T cells. IL-6, in concert with TGF-β, is important for developing Th17 responses. IL-6 binds to IL-6Rα and through this association induces gp130 homodimerization (1). gp130 homodimerization triggers the Jak/Stat cascade and the SHP-2/Erk MAP kinase cascade (1,3,4). IL-6 also forms a complex with an IL-6Rα splice variant that is nonmembrane-associated (3). The IL-6/soluble IL-6Rα complex can then activate the gp130 signaling pathway in cells that express gp130 but not IL-6Rα (3). Research studies have shown that IL-6, through increasing expression of proangiogenic VEGF, may also contribute to metastatic breast cancer (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Proteins in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex are integral membrane proteins involved in vesicle transport and membrane fusion by pairing of vesicular SNAREs (v-SNAREs) with cognate target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) (reviewed in 1,2). Vesicle associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), also known as cellubrevin, has a broad tissue distribution and localizes to endosomal compartments (3). VAMP3 interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP23, and SNAP25 (4,5). Research studies indicate that VAMP3 is involved in transferrin receptor recycling to the plasma membrane (6) and in T-cell receptor recycling to immunological synapses (7). Inhibition of VAMP3 with tetanus toxin impairs membrane trafficking during cell migration (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$210
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated OX40 (D1S6L) Rabbit mAb #15123.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: OX40 (TNFRSF4, CD134) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily that regulates T cell activity and immune responses. The OX40 protein contains four cysteine rich domains, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic tail containing a QEE motif (1,2). OX40 is primarily expressed on activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, while the OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, CD252) is predominantly expressed on activated antigen presenting cells (3-7). The engagement of OX40 with OX40L leads to the recruitment of TNF receptor-associated factors (TRAFs) and results in the formation of a TCR-independent signaling complex. One component of this complex, PKCθ, activates the NF-κB pathway (2,8). OX40 signaling through Akt can also enhance TCR signaling directly (9). Research studies indicate that the OX40L-OX40 pathway is associated with inflammation and autoimmune diseases (10). Additional research studies show that OX40 agonists augment anti-tumor immunity in several cancer types (11,12).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Proteins in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex are integral membrane proteins involved in vesicle transport and membrane fusion by pairing of vesicular SNAREs (v-SNAREs) with cognate target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) (reviewed in 1,2). Vesicle associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), also known as cellubrevin, has a broad tissue distribution and localizes to endosomal compartments (3). VAMP3 interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP23, and SNAP25 (4,5). Research studies indicate that VAMP3 is involved in transferrin receptor recycling to the plasma membrane (6) and in T-cell receptor recycling to immunological synapses (7). Inhibition of VAMP3 with tetanus toxin impairs membrane trafficking during cell migration (8).