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Monkey Regulation of Viral Genome Replication

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cyclophilins are a highly conserved family of peptidylprolyl cis-trans-isomerases (PPIA) that are targets of the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporin A (CsA) (1,2). The complex of cyclophilin and CsA can bind to and inhibit calcineurin which leads to inhibition of the transcription factor NFAT and decreased production of cytokines (3,4). As isomerases, cyclophilins have been proposed to aid in protein folding. Cyclophilin A can bind to the p55 Gag protein of HIV and appears necessary for HIV infection (5,6). There is also some evidence that cyclophilins have nuclease activity and play a role in apoptosis (7).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: DNA topoisomerases I and II are nuclear enzymes; type II consists of two highly homologous isoforms: topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. These enzymes regulate the topology of DNA, maintain genomic integrity, and are essential for processes such as DNA replication, recombination, transcription, and chromosome segregation by allowing DNA strands to pass through each other (1). Topoisomerase I nicks and rejoins one strand of the duplex DNA, while topoisomerase II transiently breaks and closes double-stranded DNA (2). Topoisomerases are very susceptible to various stresses. Acidic pH or oxidative stress can convert topoisomerases to DNA-breaking nucleases, causing genomic instability and cell death. DNA-damaging topoisomerase targeting drugs (e.g., etoposide) also convert topoisomerases to nucleases, with the enzyme usually trapped as an intermediate that is covalently bound to the 5+ end of the cleaved DNA strand(s). Research studies have shown that this intermediate leads to genomic instability and cell death. Thus, agents that target topoisomerases are highly sought after cancer chemotherapeutic drugs (3). Ca2+-regulated phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα at Ser1106 modulates the activity of this enzyme and its sensitivity to targeting drugs (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Post-transcriptional processing of RNAs such as RNA editing is an important mechanism by which diversity in RNA and protein is achieved that is not otherwise encoded by the genome (1,2). The most common form of RNA editing is the conversion of adenosine (A) into inosine (I) on double stranded RNA by the adenosine deaminase acting on RNA (ADAR) family of proteins (1-3). Since inosine base pairs with cytidine, it is interpreted as a guanosine by the splicing and translational machinery leading to alteration in the protein sequence, as well as splicing isoforms being generated (1,4-6). A-to-I editing can also influence RNA sequence recognition by RNA binding proteins and non-coding RNA, such as miRNAs, affecting subsequent RNA processing, stability, and protein expression levels (2).ADAR1 is ubiquitously expressed with two known isoforms ADAR1L (p150) and ADAR1S (p110) resulting from transcription using alternative promoters and start codons. ADAR1S is constitutively expressed in the nucleus, while ADAR1L is interferon-inducible and present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The induction of ADAR1L in response to cellular stress and viral infection suggests a role for RNA editing in the innate immune response (1,7). In addition, ADAR1 is essential in mammalian development, particularly in hematopoiesis and suppression of interferon signaling to protect hematopoietic stem cells from destruction in the fetal liver and the adult bone marrow (8,9).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Topoisomerase IIα (D10G9) XP® Rabbit mAb #12286.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: DNA topoisomerases I and II are nuclear enzymes; type II consists of two highly homologous isoforms: topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. These enzymes regulate the topology of DNA, maintain genomic integrity, and are essential for processes such as DNA replication, recombination, transcription, and chromosome segregation by allowing DNA strands to pass through each other (1). Topoisomerase I nicks and rejoins one strand of the duplex DNA, while topoisomerase II transiently breaks and closes double-stranded DNA (2). Topoisomerases are very susceptible to various stresses. Acidic pH or oxidative stress can convert topoisomerases to DNA-breaking nucleases, causing genomic instability and cell death. DNA-damaging topoisomerase targeting drugs (e.g., etoposide) also convert topoisomerases to nucleases, with the enzyme usually trapped as an intermediate that is covalently bound to the 5+ end of the cleaved DNA strand(s). Research studies have shown that this intermediate leads to genomic instability and cell death. Thus, agents that target topoisomerases are highly sought after cancer chemotherapeutic drugs (3). Ca2+-regulated phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα at Ser1106 modulates the activity of this enzyme and its sensitivity to targeting drugs (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Damaged DNA-Binding Protein (DDB) consists of a 127 kDa subunit (DDB-1) and a 48 kDa subunit (DDB-2) that contribute to the formation of the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein complex (UV-DDB) (1-3). In conjunction with CUL4A and ROC-1, the UV-DDB complex forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, 6-4 photoproducts, apurinic sites and short mismatches. The complex polyubiquitinates components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway (4-6). Loss of DDB activity has been identified in a subset of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) patients and has been linked to the deficient repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in cells derived from these patients (7-10).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Damaged DNA-Binding Protein (DDB) consists of a 127 kDa subunit (DDB-1) and a 48 kDa subunit (DDB-2) that contribute to the formation of the UV-damaged DNA-binding protein complex (UV-DDB) (1-3). In conjunction with CUL4A and ROC-1, the UV-DDB complex forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase that recognizes a broad spectrum of DNA lesions such as cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers, 6-4 photoproducts, apurinic sites and short mismatches. The complex polyubiquitinates components of the nucleotide excision repair pathway (4-6). Loss of DDB activity has been identified in a subset of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group E (XP-E) patients and has been linked to the deficient repair of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers in cells derived from these patients (7-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The yeast nucleotide excision repair (NER) radiation sensitive protein 23 (rad23) and its human homologs Rad23A (hHR23A) and Rad23B (hHR23B) are critical components of the cellular machinery that recognize DNA lesions and serve as receptors that target ubiquitinated substrates to the proteasome for degradation (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Interferon-stimulated 15 kDa protein (ISG15), also known as ubiquitin cross-reactive protein (UCRP), is a member of the ubiquitin-like protein family and functions in various biological pathways from pregnancy to innate immune responses (1). Expression of ISG15 is stimulated by cellular exposure to type 1 interferons α and β, in addition to infection with viruses such as influenza B (2,3). After exposure to type I interferons, both lymphocytes and monocytes, in addition to some fibroblasts and epithelial cells, release ISG15 into culture medium (1,4). ISG15 has been shown to function as a cytokine, stimulating interferon γ secretion by monocytes and macrophages, proliferation of natural killer cells, and chemotactic responses in neutrophils (4,5). ISG15 has also been shown to function intracellularly, being covalently conjugated to other proteins by E1 (Ube1L), E2 (UbcH8) and E3 ligases via a multi-step process analogous to ubiquitination (6,7). ISG15 is removed from proteins by the ubiquitin processing protease Ubp43 (8). ISG15-protein conjugation (ISGylation) is induced by type 1 interferons, and target proteins include the serine protease inhibitor Serpin 2A, PLCγ1, ERK1/2, Jak1 and Stat1 (9,10). Unlike ubiquitination, ISGylation does not target proteins for degradation, rather ISGylation increases Jak1 and Stat1 activity, enhancing the cellular response to interferons (11).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The DEAD box family of RNA helicases is characterized in part by a common D-E-A-D amino acid motif. The family is composed of a growing number of proteins found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to mammals. DEAD helicases have distinct biological functions in RNA metabolism and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) processing (reviewed in 1,2).DDX3 is a DEAD box family RNA helicase with diverse cellular functions. DDX3 is required for nuclear export of HIV-1 viral transcripts, possibly in a complex with the viral Rev protein and host cofactor CRM1 (3). DDX3 is required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication (4) and its expression is downregulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (5).Recent evidence suggests that DDX3 functions as a tumor suppressor protein. Its expression inhibits tumor cell colony formation and increases expression of the cdk inhibitor p21 Waf1/Cip1. Low DDX3 expression has been shown in HCC (5,6), and aberrant subcellular localization occurs in many squamous cell carcinomas (6). Reduced DDX3 expression in cultured cells causes a diminished dependence on serum for cell proliferation and changes in cyclin D1 and p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression (5).DDX3 is phosphorylated at Thr204 and Thr323 by the mitotic cyclin dependent kinase, cyclin B/cdc2. This phosphorylation is thought to cause a loss of DDX3 function and a concomitant repression of ribosome biogenesis and translation in mitosis (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The DEAD box family of RNA helicases is characterized in part by a common D-E-A-D amino acid motif. The family is composed of a growing number of proteins found in a wide range of organisms from bacteria to mammals. DEAD helicases have distinct biological functions in RNA metabolism and ribonucleoprotein (RNP) processing (reviewed in 1,2).DDX3 is a DEAD box family RNA helicase with diverse cellular functions. DDX3 is required for nuclear export of HIV-1 viral transcripts, possibly in a complex with the viral Rev protein and host cofactor CRM1 (3). DDX3 is required for hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA replication (4) and its expression is downregulated in hepatitis B virus (HBV) associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (5).Recent evidence suggests that DDX3 functions as a tumor suppressor protein. Its expression inhibits tumor cell colony formation and increases expression of the cdk inhibitor p21 Waf1/Cip1. Low DDX3 expression has been shown in HCC (5,6), and aberrant subcellular localization occurs in many squamous cell carcinomas (6). Reduced DDX3 expression in cultured cells causes a diminished dependence on serum for cell proliferation and changes in cyclin D1 and p21 Waf1/Cip1 expression (5).DDX3 is phosphorylated at Thr204 and Thr323 by the mitotic cyclin dependent kinase, cyclin B/cdc2. This phosphorylation is thought to cause a loss of DDX3 function and a concomitant repression of ribosome biogenesis and translation in mitosis (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Pig

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The protein kinase C-related kinases (PRKs) are a subfamily of Ser/Thr-specific kinases with a catalytic domain highly homologous to the PKC family (1-3). They are effectors of Rho family GTPases (4-6) and are activated by fatty acids and phospholipids in vitro (7,8). Activation in vitro and in vivo involves the activation loop phosphorylation of PRK1 (Thr774)/PRK2 (Thr816) by PDK1 (9,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: DDX5 (DEAD box polypeptide 5), also known as p68, was first identified as a 68 kDa nuclear protein with similarity to translation initiation factor eIF-4A (1). DDX5 is a member of the DEAD box family of putative RNA helicases, defined by the presence of a conserved DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif that appears to function primarily in the regulation of RNA secondary structure. DDX5 exhibits ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity (2) and has been identified as a critical subunit of the DROSHA complex that regulates miRNA and rRNA processing (3,4). DDX may also regulate mRNA splicing (5) and has been shown to interact with HDAC1, where it can regulate promoter-specific transcription (6). DDX5 interacts with a diverse group of proteins, including Runx2, p53, Smad3, CBP, and p300 (7-10), suggesting an important role for DDX5 in a multitude of developmental processes. Notably, DDX5 may be involved in growth factor-induced epithelial mesechymal transition (EMT). Phosphorylation of DDX5 at Tyr593 following PDGF stimulation was shown to displace Axin from β-catenin; this prevented phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK-3β, leading to Wnt-independent nuclear translocation of β-catenin (11) and increased transcription of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Snai1 (12,13).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: DDX5 (DEAD box polypeptide 5), also known as p68, was first identified as a 68 kDa nuclear protein with similarity to translation initiation factor eIF-4A (1). DDX5 is a member of the DEAD box family of putative RNA helicases, defined by the presence of a conserved DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) motif that appears to function primarily in the regulation of RNA secondary structure. DDX5 exhibits ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity (2) and has been identified as a critical subunit of the DROSHA complex that regulates miRNA and rRNA processing (3,4). DDX may also regulate mRNA splicing (5) and has been shown to interact with HDAC1, where it can regulate promoter-specific transcription (6). DDX5 interacts with a diverse group of proteins, including Runx2, p53, Smad3, CBP, and p300 (7-10), suggesting an important role for DDX5 in a multitude of developmental processes. Notably, DDX5 may be involved in growth factor-induced epithelial mesechymal transition (EMT). Phosphorylation of DDX5 at Tyr593 following PDGF stimulation was shown to displace Axin from β-catenin; this prevented phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK-3β, leading to Wnt-independent nuclear translocation of β-catenin (11) and increased transcription of c-Myc, cyclin D1, and Snai1 (12,13).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved and abundant 97 kDa protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins. VCP assembles as a homo-hexamer, forming a ring with a channel at its center (1,2,3). VCP homo-hexamers associate with a variety of protein cofactors to form many distinct protein complexes, which act as chaperones to unfold proteins and transport them to specific cellular compartments or to the proteosome (4). These protein complexes participate in many cellular functions, including vesicle transport and fusion, fragmentation and reassembly of the golgi stacks during mitosis, nuclear envelope formation and spindle disassembly following mitosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, B- and T-cell activation, NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and protein degradation (4). VCP appears to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum; however, tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with relocalization to the centrosome during mitosis (5). In addition, following cellular exposure to ionizing radition, VCP is phosphorylated at Ser784 in an ATM-dependent manner and accumulates in the nucleus at sites of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) (6). Exposure to other types of DNA damaging agents such as UV light, bleomycin or doxorubicin results in phosphorylation of VCP by ATR and DNA-PK in an ATM-independent manner (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), also known as beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (beta-ARK1), is a member of the GRK family, which phosphorylates the activated form of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and initiates the desensitization process of GPCR (1). GRK2 kinase activity and cellular localization are tightly regulated by interactions with activated receptors, G-beta and G-gamma subunits, adaptor proteins, phospholipids, caveolin and calmodulin, as well as by phosphorylation (1). PKC phosphorylation enhances GRK2 activity by promoting its membrane localization and by abolishing the inhibitory association of calmodulin (2,3). PKA phosphorylates GRK2 at Ser685, which facilitates the association of GRK2 with a beta-adrenergic receptor (4). Erk inhibits GRK2 activity via phosphorylation at Ser670 (5). Src phosphorylates GRK2 at multiple tyrosine residues (Tyr13, 86 and 92), which activates GRK2 activity and promotes GRK2 degradation (6,7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The protein product of the DEK oncogene is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is highly conserved among higher eukaryotic organisms and preferentially expressed in actively proliferating and/or malignant cells (1,2). DEK is an abundant, non-histone chromosomal protein that establishes and maintains heterochromatin by interacting with HP1a, enhancing HP1a binding to tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 and stabilizing local tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 levels (3). DEK localized to euchromatin represses transcription by interacting with transcription factors such as RelA/p65 (4). The DEK protein also associates with mRNA processing factors to regulate splicing and nuclear export (5,6).The DEK proto-oncogene functions as a negative regulator of cellular differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. DEK is translocated and/or over-expressed in a number of different cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and small cell lung cancer (1,2). In addition to the role of DEK in cancer biology, which is mainly related to its intracellular functions, extracellular DEK is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders (1,2). Circulating autoantibodies to DEK have been identified in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, sarcoidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. DEK is secreted by human monocyte-derived macrophages and apoptotic T-lymphocytes and can act as a chemotactic, pro-inflammatory factor (7,8). Exogenous DEK can penetrate neighboring cells, and translocate to the nucleus to carry out its endogenous nuclear functions (9). IL-8 induced secretion of DEK from macrophages serves as a chemoattractant for peripheral blood leukocytes (7).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The protein product of the DEK oncogene is a nuclear phosphoprotein that is highly conserved among higher eukaryotic organisms and preferentially expressed in actively proliferating and/or malignant cells (1,2). DEK is an abundant, non-histone chromosomal protein that establishes and maintains heterochromatin by interacting with HP1a, enhancing HP1a binding to tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 and stabilizing local tri-methyl histone H3 Lys9 levels (3). DEK localized to euchromatin represses transcription by interacting with transcription factors such as RelA/p65 (4). The DEK protein also associates with mRNA processing factors to regulate splicing and nuclear export (5,6).The DEK proto-oncogene functions as a negative regulator of cellular differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. DEK is translocated and/or over-expressed in a number of different cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, breast cancer, cervical cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, and small cell lung cancer (1,2). In addition to the role of DEK in cancer biology, which is mainly related to its intracellular functions, extracellular DEK is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders (1,2). Circulating autoantibodies to DEK have been identified in the serum of patients with autoimmune diseases, including juvenile idiopathic arthritis, sarcoidosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus. DEK is secreted by human monocyte-derived macrophages and apoptotic T-lymphocytes and can act as a chemotactic, pro-inflammatory factor (7,8). Exogenous DEK can penetrate neighboring cells, and translocate to the nucleus to carry out its endogenous nuclear functions (9). IL-8 induced secretion of DEK from macrophages serves as a chemoattractant for peripheral blood leukocytes (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Valosin-containing protein (VCP) is a highly conserved and abundant 97 kDa protein that belongs to the AAA (ATPase associated with a variety of cellular activities) family of proteins. VCP assembles as a homo-hexamer, forming a ring with a channel at its center (1,2,3). VCP homo-hexamers associate with a variety of protein cofactors to form many distinct protein complexes, which act as chaperones to unfold proteins and transport them to specific cellular compartments or to the proteosome (4). These protein complexes participate in many cellular functions, including vesicle transport and fusion, fragmentation and reassembly of the golgi stacks during mitosis, nuclear envelope formation and spindle disassembly following mitosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, B- and T-cell activation, NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and protein degradation (4). VCP appears to localize mainly to the endoplasmic reticulum; however, tyrosine phosphorylation is associated with relocalization to the centrosome during mitosis (5). In addition, following cellular exposure to ionizing radition, VCP is phosphorylated at Ser784 in an ATM-dependent manner and accumulates in the nucleus at sites of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) (6). Exposure to other types of DNA damaging agents such as UV light, bleomycin or doxorubicin results in phosphorylation of VCP by ATR and DNA-PK in an ATM-independent manner (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor and MAPK and MTOR activator 5 (LAMTOR5) is an essential component of the ragulator protein complex that is encoded by the HBXIP gene (1). The ragulator complex also includes LAMTOR1/C11orf59, LAMTOR2/ROBLD3, LAMTOR3/MAPKSP1, and LAMTOR4/C7orf59 (1,2). Research studies demonstrate that the ragulator complex localizes to the lysosomal membrane and is essential for the lysosomal localization of Rag GTPases and mTORC1 as well as the subsequent activation of mTORC1 in response to amino acid signaling (1-3). Additional research studies indicate that HBXIP regulates hepatitis B virus x (HBx) protein activity and is a transcription coactivator involved in the proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CtBP1 (C-terminal binding protein 1) was first recognized as a cellular factor that interacts with the C-terminal portion of adenovirus E1A, a protein involved in the transcriptional regulation of key cellular genes (1). CtBP1 is able to regulate gene activity through its intrinsic dehydrogenase activity (2,3) and by interacting with Polycomb Group (PcG) proteins during development (4). Along with its homologue, CtBP2, it acts as a transcriptional corepressor of zinc-finger homeodomain factor deltaEF1 to regulate a wide range of cellular processes through transrepression mechanisms (5). Through its direct interaction with PRDM16, CtBP1 has been shown to be involved in brown adipose tissue differentiation by mediating the repression of white fat genes and directing differentiation toward the brown fat gene program (6). CtBP1 also plays a role in lipid metabolic pathways and membrane fission by regulating the fission machinery operating Golgi tubular networks (7). CtBP1 has recently been shown to repress transcription of BRCA1 via a redox regulated mechanism (8). Furthermore, it is thought that downregulation of BRCA1 and E-cadherin in invasive ductal breast carcinoma correlates directly with activation of CtBP1 (9).