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Monoclonal Antibody Centric Heterochromatin

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a family of heterochromatic adaptor molecules involved in both gene silencing and higher order chromatin structure (1). All three HP1 family members (α, β, and γ) are primarily associated with centromeric heterochromatin; however, HP1β and γ also localize to euchromatic sites in the genome (2,3). HP1 proteins are approximately 25 kDa in size and contain a conserved amino-terminal chromodomain, followed by a variable hinge region and a conserved carboxy-terminal chromoshadow domain. The chromodomain facilitates binding to histone H3 tri-methylated at Lys9, a histone "mark" closely associated with centromeric heterochromatin (4,5). The variable hinge region binds both RNA and DNA in a sequence-independent manner (6). The chromoshadow domain mediates the dimerization of HP1 proteins, in addition to binding multiple proteins implicated in gene silencing and heterochromatin formation, including the SUV39H histone methyltransferase, the DNMT1 and DNMT3a DNA methyltransferases, and the p150 subunit of chromatin-assembly factor-1 (CAF1) (7-9). In addition to contributing to heterochromatin formation and propagation, HP1 and SUV39H are also found complexed with retinoblastoma (Rb) and E2F6 proteins, both of which function to repress euchromatic gene transcription in quiescent cells (10,11). HP1 proteins are subject to multiple types of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, suggesting multiple means of regulation (12-14).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The Ikaros family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins belongs to the Kruppel transcription factor superfamily. Ikaros proteins are characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain. Members of the Ikaros family include Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, EOS, and Pegasus (1). All family members can form homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the Ikaros family. Most also contain multiple isoforms that are generated as a result of differential splicing, with some isoforms behaving in a dominant negative manner upon dimerization (2).Ikaros (IKZF1, LYF1) is the prototypical Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed abundantly in lymphoid cells. Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). Additional studies show that imbalanced expression of different Ikaros isoforms, as well as mutations in the corresponding IKAROS gene, can be associated with a number of hematologic malignancies in humans (2,5,6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues in mammalian cells is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting and development (1,2). Three families of mammalian DNA methyltransferases have been identified: DNMT1, DNMT2 and DNMT3 (1,2). DNMT1 is constitutively expressed in proliferating cells and functions as a maintenance methyltransferase, transferring proper methylation patterns to newly synthesized DNA during replication. DNMT3A and DNMT3B are strongly expressed in embryonic stem cells with reduced expression in adult somatic tissues. DNMT3A and DNMT3B function as de novo methyltransferases that methylate previously unmethylated regions of DNA. DNMT2 is expressed at low levels in adult somatic tissues and its inactivation affects neither de novo nor maintenance DNA methylation. DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B together form a protein complex that interacts with histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, Sin3A), transcriptional repressor proteins (RB, TAZ-1) and heterochromatin proteins (HP1, SUV39H1), to maintain proper levels of DNA methylation and facilitate gene silencing (3-8). Improper DNA methylation contributes to diseased states such as cancer (1,2). Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands within tumor suppressor genes correlates with gene silencing and the development of cancer. In addition, hypomethylation of bulk genomic DNA correlates with and may contribute to the onset of cancer. DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B are over-expressed in many cancers, including acute and chronic myelogenous leukemias, in addition to colon, breast and stomach carcinomas (9-12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The Ikaros family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins belongs to the Kruppel transcription factor superfamily. Ikaros proteins are characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain. Members of the Ikaros family include Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, EOS, and Pegasus (1). All family members can form homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the Ikaros family. Most also contain multiple isoforms that are generated as a result of differential splicing, with some isoforms behaving in a dominant negative manner upon dimerization (2).Ikaros (IKZF1, LYF1) is the prototypical Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed abundantly in lymphoid cells. Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). Additional studies show that imbalanced expression of different Ikaros isoforms, as well as mutations in the corresponding IKAROS gene, can be associated with a number of hematologic malignancies in humans (2,5,6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ikaros (D6N9Y) Rabbit mAb #14859.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Ikaros family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins belongs to the Kruppel transcription factor superfamily. Ikaros proteins are characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain. Members of the Ikaros family include Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, EOS, and Pegasus (1). All family members can form homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the Ikaros family. Most also contain multiple isoforms that are generated as a result of differential splicing, with some isoforms behaving in a dominant negative manner upon dimerization (2).Ikaros (IKZF1, LYF1) is the prototypical Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed abundantly in lymphoid cells. Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). Additional studies show that imbalanced expression of different Ikaros isoforms, as well as mutations in the corresponding IKAROS gene, can be associated with a number of hematologic malignancies in humans (2,5,6).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated DNMT1 (D63A6) XP® Rabbit mAb #5032.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues in mammalian cells is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting and development (1,2). Three families of mammalian DNA methyltransferases have been identified: DNMT1, DNMT2 and DNMT3 (1,2). DNMT1 is constitutively expressed in proliferating cells and functions as a maintenance methyltransferase, transferring proper methylation patterns to newly synthesized DNA during replication. DNMT3A and DNMT3B are strongly expressed in embryonic stem cells with reduced expression in adult somatic tissues. DNMT3A and DNMT3B function as de novo methyltransferases that methylate previously unmethylated regions of DNA. DNMT2 is expressed at low levels in adult somatic tissues and its inactivation affects neither de novo nor maintenance DNA methylation. DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B together form a protein complex that interacts with histone deacetylases (HDAC1, HDAC2, Sin3A), transcriptional repressor proteins (RB, TAZ-1) and heterochromatin proteins (HP1, SUV39H1), to maintain proper levels of DNA methylation and facilitate gene silencing (3-8). Improper DNA methylation contributes to diseased states such as cancer (1,2). Hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands within tumor suppressor genes correlates with gene silencing and the development of cancer. In addition, hypomethylation of bulk genomic DNA correlates with and may contribute to the onset of cancer. DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B are over-expressed in many cancers, including acute and chronic myelogenous leukemias, in addition to colon, breast and stomach carcinomas (9-12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Histone macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 comprise a family of variant histone H2A proteins. MacroH2A1 exists as two distinct isoforms due to alternative splicing of a single gene; macroH2A1.1 levels accumulate throughout differentiation and development while macroH2A1.2 shows a constant level of expression (1). MacroH2A1 and macroH2A2 are encoded by completely distinct genes located on separate chromosomes (2,3). Both macroH2A1 and macroH2A2 proteins contain an amino-terminal histone-like region with 64% sequence identity to canonical histone H2A, in addition to a carboxy-terminal “macro” domain (1-3). MacroH2A1 and macroH2A2 are enriched in facultative heterochromatin, including inactivated X chromosomes in mammalian females and senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (2-5). Both act to repress gene transcription by inhibiting the binding of transcription factors to chromatin, the acetylation of histones by p300, and the chromatin-remodeling activities of SWI/SNF and ACF (6,7). The macro domain of macroH2A1.1 binds to ADP-ribose and functions to recruit macroH2A1.1 to activated PARP at sites of DNA damage, where it mediates chromatin rearrangements to locally regulate the DNA damage response (8). MacroH2A1.2 and macroH2A2 do not bind poly-ADP-ribose and are not recruited to sites of activated PARP (8).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ikaros (D6N9Y) Rabbit mAb #14859.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Ikaros family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins belongs to the Kruppel transcription factor superfamily. Ikaros proteins are characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain. Members of the Ikaros family include Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, EOS, and Pegasus (1). All family members can form homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the Ikaros family. Most also contain multiple isoforms that are generated as a result of differential splicing, with some isoforms behaving in a dominant negative manner upon dimerization (2).Ikaros (IKZF1, LYF1) is the prototypical Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed abundantly in lymphoid cells. Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). Additional studies show that imbalanced expression of different Ikaros isoforms, as well as mutations in the corresponding IKAROS gene, can be associated with a number of hematologic malignancies in humans (2,5,6).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Ikaros (D6N9Y) Rabbit mAb #14859.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The Ikaros family of zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins belongs to the Kruppel transcription factor superfamily. Ikaros proteins are characterized by the presence of an amino-terminal zinc finger DNA-binding domain and a carboxy-terminal dimerization domain. Members of the Ikaros family include Ikaros, Aiolos, Helios, EOS, and Pegasus (1). All family members can form homodimers and heterodimers with other members of the Ikaros family. Most also contain multiple isoforms that are generated as a result of differential splicing, with some isoforms behaving in a dominant negative manner upon dimerization (2).Ikaros (IKZF1, LYF1) is the prototypical Ikaros family zinc-finger transcription factor and is expressed abundantly in lymphoid cells. Genetic studies in mice demonstrate that Ikaros is a tumor suppressor that is important for the normal development of B, T, natural killer, and dendritic cells (3,4). Additional studies show that imbalanced expression of different Ikaros isoforms, as well as mutations in the corresponding IKAROS gene, can be associated with a number of hematologic malignancies in humans (2,5,6).