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Monoclonal Antibody Embryonic Neurocranium Morphogenesis

Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Embryonic Neurocranium Morphogenesis

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: NADP+ dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, the last step in one-carbon (1-C) flow from mitochondria to cytoplasm (1,2). These one-carbon end products are required for de novo synthesis of thymidylate and purines. In the mitochondria, these essential one-carbon products are formed by a series of reactions catalyzed by a pair of enzymes (MTHFD2 and MTHFD1L), but by the trifunctional MTHFD1 enzyme in the cytoplasm (3). The 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase MTHFD1L is widely expressed in most adult tissues and at all stages of mammalian embryonic development (1). Research studies using MTHFD1L knockout mice indicate that MTHFD1L plays an essential role in neural tube formation; mice lacking MTHFD1L displayed neural tube and craniofacial defects leading to embryonic lethality (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: NADP+ dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, the last step in one-carbon (1-C) flow from mitochondria to cytoplasm (1,2). These one-carbon end products are required for de novo synthesis of thymidylate and purines. In the mitochondria, these essential one-carbon products are formed by a series of reactions catalyzed by a pair of enzymes (MTHFD2 and MTHFD1L), but by the trifunctional MTHFD1 enzyme in the cytoplasm (3). The 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase MTHFD1L is widely expressed in most adult tissues and at all stages of mammalian embryonic development (1). Research studies using MTHFD1L knockout mice indicate that MTHFD1L plays an essential role in neural tube formation; mice lacking MTHFD1L displayed neural tube and craniofacial defects leading to embryonic lethality (4).