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Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Circadian Rhythm

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CREB (48H2) Rabbit mAb #9197.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human and mouse cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb #9198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb #9198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells and immunofluorescence analysis in human cells and rat tissue. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-CREB (Ser133) (87G3) Rabbit mAb #9198.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: CREB is a bZIP transcription factor that activates target genes through cAMP response elements. CREB is able to mediate signals from numerous physiological stimuli, resulting in regulation of a broad array of cellular responses. While CREB is expressed in numerous tissues, it plays a large regulatory role in the nervous system. CREB is believed to play a key role in promoting neuronal survival, precursor proliferation, neurite outgrowth, and neuronal differentiation in certain neuronal populations (1-3). Additionally, CREB signaling is involved in learning and memory in several organisms (4-6). CREB is able to selectively activate numerous downstream genes through interactions with different dimerization partners. CREB is activated by phosphorylation at Ser133 by various signaling pathways including Erk, Ca2+, and stress signaling. Some of the kinases involved in phosphorylating CREB at Ser133 are p90RSK, MSK, CaMKIV, and MAPKAPK-2 (7-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Association of the receptor Fas with its ligand FasL triggers an apoptotic pathway that plays an important role in immune regulation, development, and progression of cancers (1,2). Loss of function mutation in either Fas (lpr mice) or FasL (gld mice) leads to lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly as a result of decreased apoptosis in CD4-CD8- T lymphocytes (3,4). FasL (CD95L, Apo-1L) is a type II transmembrane protein of 280 amino acids (runs at approximately 40 kDa upon glycosylation) that belongs to the TNF family, which also includes TNF-α, TRAIL, and TWEAK. Binding of FasL to its receptor triggers the formation of a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) involving the recruitment of the adaptor protein FADD and caspase-8 (5). Activation of caspase-8 from this complex initiates a caspase cascade resulting in the activation of caspase-3 and subsequent cleavage of proteins leading to apoptosis. Unlike Fas, which is constitutively expressed by various cell types, FasL is predominantly expressed on activated T lymphocytes, NK cells, and at immune privileged sites (6). FasL is also expressed in several tumor types as a mechanism to evade immune surveillance (7). Similar to other members of the TNF family, FasL can be cleaved by metalloproteinases producing a 26 kDa trimeric soluble form (8,9).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated EGR1 (44D5) Rabbit mAb #4154.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: EGR family members are transcriptional factors that contain three repetitive zinc finger DNA binding domains which bind to EGR response elements (ER) to regulate target gene expression (1). The expression of EGR family members is induced by growth factors, with EGR1 expression being induced by NGF (1,2). Increased EGR1 expression activates transcription of other signaling molecules, including CDK5 and tyrosine hydroxylase, and exerts long term effects on neural cell growth and differentiation (2,3).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: EGR family members are transcriptional factors that contain three repetitive zinc finger DNA binding domains which bind to EGR response elements (ER) to regulate target gene expression (1). The expression of EGR family members is induced by growth factors, with EGR1 expression being induced by NGF (1,2). Increased EGR1 expression activates transcription of other signaling molecules, including CDK5 and tyrosine hydroxylase, and exerts long term effects on neural cell growth and differentiation (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Pig

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JunD, along with closely related family members c-Jun and JunB, is a transcription factor that can activate or repress a wide array of target genes (1,2). JunD transcriptional activity is modulated by phosphorylation in response to cellular stress via the c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)/Stress-Activated Protein Kinase (SAPK) family of protein kinases (3,4). JunD activity can also be modulated by the MAPK pathway in response to growth factors. Its transcriptional capacity is further regulated by other binding partners that affect JunD expression levels and DNA binding capacity (reviewed in 5). All Jun proteins are capable of forming dimers with Fos-, ATF- and CREB-family transcription factors to form the AP-1 complex that differentially regulates a variety of target genes involved in cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis (reviewed in 5 and 6). Unlike JunB and c-Jun, which share a high degree of homology (>95%), JunD is less conserved (~75%) at the amino acid level (1). Growing evidence suggests that JunD protein expression is regulated independently of other family members (reviewed in 5). It is thought that JunD may have functional significance beyond the typical Jun-family milieu. This is exemplified by the fact that JunD knockout mice are viable, bearing specific defects in cardiomyocyte function and bone growth, whereas their c-Jun counterparts develop significant, multi-organ defects during embryogenesis and die at E12.5 (7-10). JunD appears to specifically regulate genes involved in antioxidant response and hydrogen peroxide production and plays an important role in angiogenesis via its ability to exert transcriptional control over the VEGF gene (11). Furthermore, JunD appears to play an important roll in metabolism via modulation of IGF-I signaling pathways (12). Recent studies have shown that JunD regulates GADD45 α and γ expression in prostate cancer cells and that inhibition of JunD promotes apoptosis. Thus, JunD may be a viable therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer (13).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) (G9) Mouse mAb #9255. 
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-c-Jun (Ser73) (D47G9) XP® Rabbit mAb #3270.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$303
200 µl
$717
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$327
50 tests
100 µl
Cell Signaling Technology Antibody conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct Flow Cytometric analysis of human and mouse cells. The unconjugated antibody #9255 reacts with, among others, human, mouse, rat and hamster phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185). CST expects that Phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) (G9) Mouse mAb (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) will also recognize phospho-SAPK/JNK (Thr183/Tyr185) in these species.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: The stress-activated protein kinase/Jun-amino-terminal kinase SAPK/JNK is potently and preferentially activated by a variety of environmental stresses including UV and gamma radiation, ceramides, inflammatory cytokines, and in some instances, growth factors and GPCR agonists (1-6). As with the other MAPKs, the core signaling unit is composed of a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1-MEKK4, or by one of the mixed lineage kinases (MLKs), which phosphorylate and activate MKK4/7. Upon activation, MKKs phosphorylate and activate the SAPK/JNK kinase (2). Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42) (3). Both Rac1 and cdc42 mediate the stimulation of MEKKs and MLKs (3). Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated in a GTPase-independent mechanism via stimulation of a germinal center kinase (GCK) family member (4). There are three SAPK/JNK genes each of which undergoes alternative splicing, resulting in numerous isoforms (3). SAPK/JNK, when active as a dimer, can translocate to the nucleus and regulate transcription through its effects on c-Jun, ATF-2, and other transcription factors (3,5).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: DNA topoisomerases I and II are nuclear enzymes; type II consists of two highly homologous isoforms: topoisomerase IIα and IIβ. These enzymes regulate the topology of DNA, maintain genomic integrity, and are essential for processes such as DNA replication, recombination, transcription, and chromosome segregation by allowing DNA strands to pass through each other (1). Topoisomerase I nicks and rejoins one strand of the duplex DNA, while topoisomerase II transiently breaks and closes double-stranded DNA (2). Topoisomerases are very susceptible to various stresses. Acidic pH or oxidative stress can convert topoisomerases to DNA-breaking nucleases, causing genomic instability and cell death. DNA-damaging topoisomerase targeting drugs (e.g., etoposide) also convert topoisomerases to nucleases, with the enzyme usually trapped as an intermediate that is covalently bound to the 5+ end of the cleaved DNA strand(s). Research studies have shown that this intermediate leads to genomic instability and cell death. Thus, agents that target topoisomerases are highly sought after cancer chemotherapeutic drugs (3). Ca2+-regulated phosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα at Ser1106 modulates the activity of this enzyme and its sensitivity to targeting drugs (4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).