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Monoclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Protein Export from Nucleus

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Pacific Blue™ fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) (D85E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #5558.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in rat cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GSK-3β (D5C5Z) XP® Rabbit mAb #12456.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) (D85E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #5558.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) (D85E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #5558.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-GSK-3β (Ser9) (D85E12) XP® Rabbit mAb #5558.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified as an enzyme that regulates glycogen synthesis in response to insulin (1). GSK-3 is a ubiquitously expressed serine/threonine protein kinase that phosphorylates and inactivates glycogen synthase. GSK-3 is a critical downstream element of the PI3K/Akt cell survival pathway whose activity can be inhibited by Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser21 of GSK-3α and Ser9 of GSK-3β (2,3). GSK-3 has been implicated in the regulation of cell fate in Dictyostelium and is a component of the Wnt signaling pathway required for Drosophila, Xenopus, and mammalian development (4). GSK-3 has been shown to regulate cyclin D1 proteolysis and subcellular localization (5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IL-1β (D3U3E) Rabbit mAb #12703.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of the major caspase-1 targets, is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in a host of immune and proinflammatory responses (1). It is produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. It signals through various adaptor proteins and kinases that lead to activation of numerous downstream targets (2-6). Human IL-1β is synthesized as a 31 kDa precursor. To gain activity, the precursor must be cleaved by caspase-1 between Asp116 and Ala117 to yield a 17 kDa mature form (7,8). Detection of the 17 kDa mature form of IL-1β is a good indicator of caspase-1 activity.

$327
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-SHP-2 (Tyr580) (D66F10) Rabbit mAb #5431.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The α isoform of protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C-α) is the catalytic subunit of a widely expressed serine/threonine phosphatase involved in regulation of the cell stress response (1,2). Also known as magnesium-dependent protein phosphatase (PPM1A), this monomeric phosphatase is a member of a conserved group of proteins that acts on many different substrates in numerous pathways. PP2C-α inhibits p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK pathways activated in response to cell stress as seen in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Specifically, PP2C-α removes phosphates from MKK3 and MKK7, reducing activity of both proteins and inhibiting activation of the downstream kinases JNK and p38 MAPK, respectively (3). Another PP2C-α substrate is IKKβ, the critical regulator of NF-κB signaling. Dephosphorylation of IKKβ at Ser177/181 by PPM1A and PPM1B results in inactivation of IKKβ and inhibition of NF-κB signaling (4). PP2C-α is one of the phosphatases responsible for removing phosphate residues from cyclin dependent protein kinases. In a study using HeLa cell extracts, PP2C-α dephospohrylates CDK2 and CDK6, with a preference toward interacting with CDK2 phosphorylated at Thr160, a residue found in the activating T-loop of the kinase. Removal of phosphates from this site is thought to inactivate cyclin-associated kinases (5). PP2C-α induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, likely through activation of p53 though other pathways may also contribute to PP2C-α mediated cell death (6). Additional PP2C-α substrates include the Wnt signaling pathway protein axin (7) and CFTR, a chloride channel protein implicated in cystic fibrosis (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the INK4 family of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors include p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p18INK4C and p19INK4D. The INK4 family members inhibit cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), causing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. The INK4A-ARF-INK4B locus on chromosome 9p21, frequently lost in human cancer, encodes the INK4 family members p16INK5A and p15INK4B, as well as the unrelated protein, ARF (1).p16 INK4A expression, typically repressed in the absence of stress, is thought to drive cells into senescence, and p16 INK4A expression is a commonly used marker of senescent cells (2). p16INK4A protein expression is often altered in human cancer (3,4), and high expression is currently used as a predictive biomarker in cervical cancer (5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p16 INK4A (D7C1M) Rabbit mAb #80772.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Members of the INK4 family of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors include p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p18INK4C and p19INK4D. The INK4 family members inhibit cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), causing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. The INK4A-ARF-INK4B locus on chromosome 9p21, frequently lost in human cancer, encodes the INK4 family members p16INK5A and p15INK4B, as well as the unrelated protein, ARF (1).p16 INK4A expression, typically repressed in the absence of stress, is thought to drive cells into senescence, and p16 INK4A expression is a commonly used marker of senescent cells (2). p16INK4A protein expression is often altered in human cancer (3,4), and high expression is currently used as a predictive biomarker in cervical cancer (5).

$305
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated p16 INK4A (D7C1M) Rabbit mAb #80772.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Members of the INK4 family of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors include p16INK4A, p15INK4B, p18INK4C and p19INK4D. The INK4 family members inhibit cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6 (CDK4 and CDK6), causing cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. The INK4A-ARF-INK4B locus on chromosome 9p21, frequently lost in human cancer, encodes the INK4 family members p16INK5A and p15INK4B, as well as the unrelated protein, ARF (1).p16 INK4A expression, typically repressed in the absence of stress, is thought to drive cells into senescence, and p16 INK4A expression is a commonly used marker of senescent cells (2). p16INK4A protein expression is often altered in human cancer (3,4), and high expression is currently used as a predictive biomarker in cervical cancer (5).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Human p14 ARF (p19 ARF in mouse) is a pro-apoptotic cell cycle regulator frequently inactive in human tumors (1). Basal expression of p14 ARF is low in most cell types, but accumulation of this protein occurs in response to oncogene expression (2,3). Increased p14 ARF levels facilitate MDM2 degradation, leading to increased p53 protein levels and subsequent cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis (4). While most p14 ARF signaling has traditionally thought to be p53-dependent, more recent reports have described p53-independent p14 ARF signaling leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Interleukin-1β (IL-1β), one of the major caspase-1 targets, is a multifunctional cytokine that is involved in a host of immune and proinflammatory responses (1). It is produced primarily by activated monocytes and macrophages. It signals through various adaptor proteins and kinases that lead to activation of numerous downstream targets (2-6). Human IL-1β is synthesized as a 31 kDa precursor. To gain activity, the precursor must be cleaved by caspase-1 between Asp116 and Ala117 to yield a 17 kDa mature form (7,8). Detection of the 17 kDa mature form of IL-1β is a good indicator of caspase-1 activity.

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calreticulin (D3E6) XP® Rabbit mAb #12238.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Calcium is a universal signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as cell motility, metabolism, protein modification, protein folding, and apoptosis. Calcium is stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is buffered by calcium binding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin, and is released via the IP3 Receptor channel (1). Calreticulin also functions as an ER chaperone that ensures proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. As such, calreticulin presumably does not alter protein folding but regulates proper timing for efficient folding and subunit assembly. Furthermore, calreticulin retains proteins in non-native conformation within the ER and targets them for degradation (2,3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells and for immunofluorescent analysis in human and mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calreticulin (D3E6) XP® Rabbit mAb #12238.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Calcium is a universal signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as cell motility, metabolism, protein modification, protein folding, and apoptosis. Calcium is stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is buffered by calcium binding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin, and is released via the IP3 Receptor channel (1). Calreticulin also functions as an ER chaperone that ensures proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. As such, calreticulin presumably does not alter protein folding but regulates proper timing for efficient folding and subunit assembly. Furthermore, calreticulin retains proteins in non-native conformation within the ER and targets them for degradation (2,3).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 555 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells and immunofluorescent analysis in mouse and human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Calreticulin (D3E6) XP® Rabbit mAb #12238.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: Calcium is a universal signaling molecule involved in many cellular functions such as cell motility, metabolism, protein modification, protein folding, and apoptosis. Calcium is stored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it is buffered by calcium binding chaperones such as calnexin and calreticulin, and is released via the IP3 Receptor channel (1). Calreticulin also functions as an ER chaperone that ensures proper folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. As such, calreticulin presumably does not alter protein folding but regulates proper timing for efficient folding and subunit assembly. Furthermore, calreticulin retains proteins in non-native conformation within the ER and targets them for degradation (2,3).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SHP-2 (PTPN11) is a ubiquitously expressed, nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP). It participates in signaling events downstream of receptors for growth factors, cytokines, hormones, antigens, and extracellular matrices in the control of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and death (1). Activation of SHP-2 and its association with Gab1 is critical for sustained Erk activation downstream of several growth factor receptors and cytokines (2). In addition to its role in Gab1-mediated Erk activation, SHP-2 attenuates EGF-dependent PI3 kinase activation by dephosphorylating Gab1 at p85 binding sites (3). SHP-2 becomes phosphorylated at Tyr542 and Tyr580 in its carboxy-terminus in response to growth factor receptor activation (4). These phosphorylation events are thought to relieve basal inhibition and stimulate SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase activity (5). Mutations in the corresponding gene result in a pair of clinically similar disorders (Noonan syndrome and LEOPARD syndrome) that may result from abnormal MAPK regulation (6).