|Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat|
Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: mRNA export is a process that is tightly coupled to mRNA splicing (1-4). Splicing and packaging of mRNAs in the form of an mRNA-protein complex (mRNP) leads to the recruitment of the mRNA export adaptor THOC4/ALY, via its interaction with the splicing factor UAP56, forming a large complex termed the transcription-export complex (TREX) (1,2,5). THOC4/ALY then directly interacts with NXF1/TAP, a part of the heterodimer that targets the mRNP to the nuclear pore complex, resulting in the shuttling of mRNP out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm (1-3,6).
Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: Cyclins are a family of proteins that activate specific cyclin-dependent kinases required for progression through the cell cycle. The entry of all eukaryotic cells into mitosis is regulated by activation of cdc2/cdk1 at the G2/M transition. This activation is a multi-step process that begins with the binding of the regulatory subunit, cyclin B1, to cdc2/cdk1 to form the mitosis-promoting factor (MPF). MPF remains in the inactive state until phosphorylation of cdc2/cdk1 at Thr161 by cdk activating kinase (CAK) (1,2) and dephosphorylation of cdc2/cdk1 at Thr14/Tyr15 by cdc25C (3-5). Five cyclin B1 phosphorylation sites (Ser116, 126, 128, 133, and 147) are located in the cytoplasmic retention signal (CRS) domain and are thought to regulate the translocation of cyclin B1 to the nucleus at the G2/M checkpoint, promoting nuclear accumulation and initiation of mitosis (6-9). While MPF itself can phosphorylate Ser126 and Ser128, polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) phosphorylates cyclin B1 preferentially at Ser133 and possibly at Ser147 (6,10). At the end of mitosis, cyclin B1 is targeted for degradation by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), allowing for cell cycle progression (11). Research studies have shown that cyclin B1 is overexpressed in breast, prostate, and non-small cell lung cancers (12-14).