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Monoclonal Antibody Immunofluorescence Immunocytochemistry Translation

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) is thought to assist the eIF4F complex in translation initiation. In plants, eIF4B is known to interact with the poly-(A) binding protein, increasing its poly-(A) binding activity (1). Heat shock and serum starvation cause dephosphorylation of eIF4B at multiple sites with kinetics similar to those of the corresponding inhibition of translation, while phosphorylation of eIF4B following insulin treatment correlates well with an observed increase in translation (2-5). Multiple kinases, including p70 S6 kinase, can phosphorylate eIF4B in vitro, and at least one serum-inducible eIF4B phosphorylation site is sensitive to rapamycin and LY294002 (6). Recently, Ser406 was identified as a novel phosphorylation site regulated by mitogens (7), and the phosphorylation of this site is dependent on MEK and mTOR activity (7). This phosphorylation is shown to be essential for the translational activity of eIF4B (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of translation is an important biological event and a variety of factors contribute to this process. Members of the eIF4 translation initiation factor family bind to the 5' m7GTP mRNA cap and unwind the mRNA secondary structure (1,2). The amino-terminal portion of eIF4G physically associates with eIF4E to stimulate the binding of eIF4E to the mRNA cap structure (3). eIF4G also interacts with eIF3 and eIF4A and serves as an adaptor molecule in the eIF4 complex (4). Moreover, eIF4G plays a role in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation of translation (5,6). The eIF4G family includes eIF4G1 (eIF4GI), eIF4G2 (p97, DAP5 or NAT1), and eIF4G3 (eIF4GII) (7). These factors share a homologous sequence that provides for interaction with initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A. Both eIF4G1 and eIF4G3 are involved in cap-dependent translation, while eIF4G2 plays a role in IRES-mediated translation of some genes during cell stress (7,8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Translation repressor protein 4E-BP1 (also known as PHAS-1) inhibits cap-dependent translation by binding to the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1 disrupts this interaction and results in activation of cap-dependent translation (1). Both the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway and FRAP/mTOR kinase regulate 4E-BP1 activity (2,3). Multiple 4E-BP1 residues are phosphorylated in vivo (4). While phosphorylation by FRAP/mTOR at Thr37 and Thr46 does not prevent the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E, it is thought to prime 4E-BP1 for subsequent phosphorylation at Ser65 and Thr70 (5).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Translation initiation requires a set of factors to facilitate the association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with mRNA. The eIF4F complex, consisting of eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF4G, binds to the 5' cap structure of mRNA. eIF4F and eIF4B unwind the secondary structure of mRNA at its 5' untranslated region. The 40S ribosomal subunit, along with some initiation factors including eIF3, then binds to the 5' mRNA cap and searches along the mRNA for the initiation codon. eIF3 is a large translation initiation complex with 10 to 13 different subunits. eIF3A, eIF3B, eIF3C, eIF3E, eIF3F, and eIF3H are the core subunits critical for the function of this complex. eIF3 physically interacts with eIF4G, which may be responsible for the association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with mRNA (1). eIF3 also stabilizes the binding of Met-tRNAf.eIF2.GTP to the 40S ribosomal subunit and helps keep the integrity of the resulting complex upon addition of the 60S ribosomal subunit (2). Studies have shown that mTOR interacts with eIF3 directly (3,4). When cells are stimulated by hormones or mitogenic signals, mTOR binds to the eIF3 complex and phosphorylates S6K1 (3). This process results in the dissociation of S6K1 from eIF3 and S6K1 activation. The activated S6K1 then phosphorylates its downstream targets including ribosomal protein S6 and eIF4B, resulting in stimulation of translation. Further findings demonstrated that activated mTOR signaling induces the association of eIF3 with eIF4G upon stimulation with insulin (3).

$307
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Translation repressor protein 4E-BP1 (also known as PHAS-1) inhibits cap-dependent translation by binding to the translation initiation factor eIF4E. Hyperphosphorylation of 4E-BP1 disrupts this interaction and results in activation of cap-dependent translation (1). Both the PI3 kinase/Akt pathway and FRAP/mTOR kinase regulate 4E-BP1 activity (2,3). Multiple 4E-BP1 residues are phosphorylated in vivo (4). While phosphorylation by FRAP/mTOR at Thr37 and Thr46 does not prevent the binding of 4E-BP1 to eIF4E, it is thought to prime 4E-BP1 for subsequent phosphorylation at Ser65 and Thr70 (5).

$364
50 assays
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 594 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4858.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The 90 kDa ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1-4) are a family of widely expressed Ser/Thr kinases characterized by two nonidentical, functional kinase domains (1) and a carboxy-terminal docking site for extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) (2). Several sites both within and outside of the RSK kinase domain, including Ser380, Thr359, Ser363, and Thr573, are important for kinase activation (3). RSK1-3 are activated via coordinated phosphorylation by MAPKs, autophosphorylation, and phosphoinositide-3-OH kinase (PI3K) in response to many growth factors, polypeptide hormones, and neurotransmitters (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Translation initiation requires a set of factors to facilitate the association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with mRNA. The eIF4F complex, consisting of eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF4G, binds to the 5' cap structure of mRNA. eIF4F and eIF4B unwind the secondary structure of mRNA at its 5' untranslated region. The 40S ribosomal subunit, along with some initiation factors including eIF3, then binds to the 5' mRNA cap and searches along the mRNA for the initiation codon. eIF3 is a large translation initiation complex with 10 to 13 different subunits. eIF3A, eIF3B, eIF3C, eIF3E, eIF3F, and eIF3H are the core subunits critical for the function of this complex. eIF3 physically interacts with eIF4G, which may be responsible for the association of the 40S ribosomal subunit with mRNA (1). eIF3 also stabilizes the binding of Met-tRNAf.eIF2.GTP to the 40S ribosomal subunit and helps keep the integrity of the resulting complex upon addition of the 60S ribosomal subunit (2). Studies have shown that mTOR interacts with eIF3 directly (3,4). When cells are stimulated by hormones or mitogenic signals, mTOR binds to the eIF3 complex and phosphorylates S6K1 (3). This process results in the dissociation of S6K1 from eIF3 and S6K1 activation. The activated S6K1 then phosphorylates its downstream targets including ribosomal protein S6 and eIF4B, resulting in stimulation of translation. Further findings demonstrated that activated mTOR signaling induces the association of eIF3 with eIF4G upon stimulation with insulin (3).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: A variety of factors contribute to the initiation of translation. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H (eIF4H) was purified to near homogeneity from rabbit reticulocyte lysate and shown to stimulate translation in an assay deficient in eIF4F and eIF4B (1). eIF4H induces the RNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the initiation factors eIF4A and eIF4B (1,2). eIF4H was further shown to stimulate the initial rate and extent of eIF4A-mediated mRNA secondary structure unwinding (3). Interaction between eIF4H and the herpes simplex virus shutoff protein (Vhs) appears to be important for Vhs-mediated degradation of mRNA (4). Deletion of a large region of chromosome 7, including the corresponding eIF4H gene, results in Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS), an autosomal dominant disorder that can present with cardiovascular problems, mental retardation and distinctive facial features (5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Poly(A)-binding protein 1 (PABP1) associates with the 3' poly(A) tail of mRNA and also eIF4F (1,2). eIF4F is a complex whose functions include the recognition of the mRNA 5' cap structure (eIF4E), delivery of an RNA helicase to the 5' region (eIF4A), bridging of the mRNA and the ribosome (eIF4G), and circularization of the mRNA via interaction between eIF4G and the poly(A) binding protein (PABP). PABP1 has been shown to have multiple functions including translation initiation, mRNA stabilization, and mRNA turnover (3,4). Phosphorylation of PABP has been shown to enhance RNA binding in eukaryotes, and PABP1 has been shown to shuttle between the nucleus and cytoplasm (5,6). PABP1 is methylated on Arg455 and Arg460 by the CARM1 protein methyltransferase (7,8); however, the function of this methylation has yet to be determined.

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) is reqiured for the 60S ribosomal subunit assembly in the nucleolus (1). In the cytoplasm, this protein is bound to 60S ribosome subunits and prevents them from joining 40S ribosome subunits to form 80S ribosomes (2). eIF6 is also shown to associate with the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) (3). Deletion of eIF6 abolishes the miRNA-mediated gene silencing (3). eIF6 may play its essential role in miRNA-mediated silencing by inhibiting translation initiation or ribosome recycling (3).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4858.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-S6 Ribosomal Protein (Ser235/236) (D57.2.2E) XP® Rabbit mAb #4858.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
$792
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of translation is an important biological event and a variety of factors contribute to this process. Members of the eIF4 translation initiation factor family bind to the 5' m7GTP mRNA cap and unwind the mRNA secondary structure (1,2). The amino-terminal portion of eIF4G physically associates with eIF4E to stimulate the binding of eIF4E to the mRNA cap structure (3). eIF4G also interacts with eIF3 and eIF4A and serves as an adaptor molecule in the eIF4 complex (4). Moreover, eIF4G plays a role in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation of translation (5,6). The eIF4G family includes eIF4G1 (eIF4GI), eIF4G2 (p97, DAP5 or NAT1), and eIF4G3 (eIF4GII) (7). These factors share a homologous sequence that provides for interaction with initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A. Both eIF4G1 and eIF4G3 are involved in cap-dependent translation, while eIF4G2 plays a role in IRES-mediated translation of some genes during cell stress (7,8).

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
$792
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).