|Human, Mouse, Rat|
Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting
Background: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a 36 amino acid peptide that belongs to the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) family, which also includes peptide YY (PYY) (1). The mature 36-residue NPY is produced from a larger pre-pro 97-residue NPY precursor through a series of cleavage reactions at dibasic sites and C-terminal amidation of the peptide product (2). NPY is widely expressed in the central nervous system (3) and exerts its action through stimulation of 5 different receptors (Y1-Y5) that belong to the G protein-coupled receptor family (4). NPY in the hypothalamus exhibits orexigenic activity through activation of Y1 and Y5 receptors (5). NPY is involved in the control of bone homeostasis, through the regulation of osteoblast activity by Y1 and Y2 receptors (6), and the regulation of testosterone secretion by activating Y1 receptor in testicular vessels (7). Research studies suggest that modulation of NPY activity and signaling represents a potential strategy for the development of appetite control and antiobesity agents (8).
Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
Background: Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY; also known as Peptide YY) is a short amino acid peptide that is a member of the gastrointestinal (GI) family of hormones (1). Other GI hormone family members include glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), ghrelin, cholecytokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose, and insulin. GI hormones have diverse physiological and behavioral functions, but some are part of the brain-gut axis that combines neural functions with the gut to regulate appetite and satiety. This subset of hormones is expressed in enteroendocrine cells, specialized cells of the GI tract and pancreas that are part of the enteric endocrine system. PYY, as well as GLP-1, is secreted by a specific group of enteroendocrine cells, L cells, which line parts of the ileum and colon. At least two endogenous forms of PYY exist: full length PYY (1-36) and cleavage-generated PYY (3-36). Ectopic peripheral injection of PYY (3-36) suppresses food intake and reduces weight gain (2). Systemic PYY (3-36) is likely to regulate food intake, in part, by regulation of hypothalamus-mediated homeostasis via arcuate nucleus (Arc)-expressed neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R) (2, 3). Thus, Peptide YY is an important GI hormone that regulates Arc-expressed neuropeptide Y2R to inhibit feeding in the gut-hypothalamic pathway.