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Monoclonal Antibody Muscle Thin Filament Assembly

Also showing Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Muscle Thin Filament Assembly

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Actin, a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein, is the major component of the cytoskeleton. At least six isoforms are known in mammals. Nonmuscle β- and γ-actin, also known as cytoplasmic actin, are predominantly expressed in nonmuscle cells, controlling cell structure and motility (1). α-cardiac and α-skeletal actin are expressed in striated cardiac and skeletal muscles, respectively; two smooth muscle actins, α- and γ-actin, are found primarily in vascular smooth muscle and enteric smooth muscle, respectively. These actin isoforms regulate the contractile potential of muscle cells (1). Actin exists mainly as a fibrous polymer, F-actin. In response to cytoskeletal reorganizing signals during processes such as cytokinesis, endocytosis, or stress, cofilin promotes fragmentation and depolymerization of F-actin, resulting in an increase in the monomeric globular form, G-actin (2). The ARP2/3 complex stabilizes F-actin fragments and promotes formation of new actin filaments (2). Research studies have shown that actin is hyperphosphorylated in primary breast tumors (3). Cleavage of actin under apoptotic conditions has been observed in vitro and in cardiac and skeletal muscle, as shown in research studies (4-6). Actin cleavage by caspase-3 may accelerate ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent muscle proteolysis (6).

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Pan-Actin (D18C11) Rabbit mAb #8456.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Actin, a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein, is the major component of the cytoskeleton. At least six isoforms are known in mammals. Nonmuscle β- and γ-actin, also known as cytoplasmic actin, are predominantly expressed in nonmuscle cells, controlling cell structure and motility (1). α-cardiac and α-skeletal actin are expressed in striated cardiac and skeletal muscles, respectively; two smooth muscle actins, α- and γ-actin, are found primarily in vascular smooth muscle and enteric smooth muscle, respectively. These actin isoforms regulate the contractile potential of muscle cells (1). Actin exists mainly as a fibrous polymer, F-actin. In response to cytoskeletal reorganizing signals during processes such as cytokinesis, endocytosis, or stress, cofilin promotes fragmentation and depolymerization of F-actin, resulting in an increase in the monomeric globular form, G-actin (2). The ARP2/3 complex stabilizes F-actin fragments and promotes formation of new actin filaments (2). Research studies have shown that actin is hyperphosphorylated in primary breast tumors (3). Cleavage of actin under apoptotic conditions has been observed in vitro and in cardiac and skeletal muscle, as shown in research studies (4-6). Actin cleavage by caspase-3 may accelerate ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent muscle proteolysis (6).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1) is a transcription factor known for its roles in organ development and lymphangiogenesis. It plays a critical role in the development of the CNS, lens, retina, liver, pancreas, and heart, and is considered to be the master regulator of the lymphatic system (1,2). PROX1 initiates the differentiation of lymphatic vasculature from the cardinal vein, where it is regulated by Sox18 (3,4). The PROX1 suppressor COUP-TFII represses the Notch pathway in venous endothelium, which prevents arterialization (4). HIF-1α and HIF-1β mediated hypoxia induces PROX1, which suggests a means of promoting lymphangiogenesis. Since the tumor microenvironment is typically hypoxic, regulation of PROX1 by hypoxia may also explain the up-regulation of this transcription factor in some cancers (2). PROX1 promotes colon cancer progression by down-regulating E-cadherin via miR-9, which promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and metastasis (5). The PROX1 protein can act as a tumor suppressor in cases of hepatocellular carcinoma. PROX1 represses transcription of TWIST1, a transcription factor that promotes metastasis by binding the E-cadherin promoter. The function of PROX1 in other cancers is an area of active research (6).