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Monoclonal Antibody Peptide Elisa Delfia Human

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of Ser/Thr kinases that regulate cell-cycle transitions through their association and subsequent phosphorylation of targets in a strictly ordered fashion (1). The substrates for CDKs are proline-directed. The consensus amino acid sequence for CDK substrate is (K/R)(S*)PX(K/R), where X denotes any one of the 20 amino acids (2-4) and S* is the phosphorylation site. Phospho-CDK Substrate Motif [(K/H)pSP] MultiMab™ Rabbit mAb mix recognizes phosphorylated CDK substrates at their consensus motif, providing a powerful tool for CDK target discovery and characterization, as well as HTS drug screening for potential kinase regulators.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: The MAPK and CDK families of serine/threonine protein kinases play important roles in cell signaling and cell cycle control. These kinases phosphorylate threonine or serine followed by a proline residue (1-6). To facilitate the study and discovery of new MAPK and CDK substrates, Cell Signaling Technology has developed antibodies that bind to phospho-threonine or phospho-serine followed by proline.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, D. melanogaster, Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: An important class of kinases, referred to as Arg-directed kinases or AGC-family kinases, includes cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), protein kinase C, Akt, and RSK. These kinases share a substrate specificity characterized by Arg at position -3 relative to the phosphorylated Ser or Thr (1,2). Akt plays a central role in mediating critical cellular responses including cell growth and survival, angiogenesis, and transcriptional regulation (3-5). While a number of Akt substrates are known (such as GSK-3, Bad, and caspase-9) many important substrates await discovery. Akt phosphorylates substrates only at Ser/Thr in a conserved motif characterized by Arg at positions -5 and -3 (6). Phospho-Akt substrate-specific antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology are powerful tools for investigating the regulation of phosphorylation by Akt and other Arg-directed kinases, as well as for high throughput kinase drug discovery.

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: The ezrin, radixin, and moesin (ERM) proteins function as linkers between the plasma membrane and the actin cytoskeleton and are involved in cell adhesion, membrane ruffling, and microvilli formation (1). ERM proteins undergo intra or intermolecular interaction between their amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, existing as inactive cytosolic monomers or dimers (2). Phosphorylation at a carboxy-terminal threonine residue (Thr567 of ezrin, Thr564 of radixin, Thr558 of moesin) disrupts the amino- and carboxy-terminal association and may play a key role in regulating ERM protein conformation and function (3,4). Phosphorylation at Thr567 of ezrin is required for cytoskeletal rearrangements and oncogene-induced transformation (5). Ezrin is also phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon growth factor stimulation. Phosphorylation of Tyr353 of ezrin transmits a survival signal during epithelial differentiation (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: IFN-γ plays key roles in both the innate and adaptive immune response. IFN-γ activates the cytotoxic activity of innate immune cells, such as macrophages and NK cells (1,2). IFN-γ production by NK cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs) promotes cell-mediated adaptive immunity by inducing IFN-γ production by T lymphocytes, increasing class I and class II MHC expression, and enhancing peptide antigen presentation (1). The anti-viral activity of IFN-γ is due to its induction of PKR and other regulatory proteins. Binding of IFN-γ to the IFNGR1/IFNGR2 complex promotes dimerization of the receptor complexes to form the (IFNGR1/IFNGR2)2 -IFN-γ dimer. Binding induces a conformational change in receptor intracellular domains and signaling involves Jak1, Jak2, and Stat1 (3). The critical role of IFN-γ in amplification of immune surveillance and function is supported by increased susceptibility to pathogen infection by IFN-γ or IFNGR knockout mice and in humans with inactivating mutations in IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. IFN-γ also appears to have a role in atherosclerosis (4).

$303
200 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-Tyrosine Mouse mAb (P-Tyr-100) #9411.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in cellular signaling (1). Research studies have shown that in cancer, unregulated tyrosine kinase activity can drive malignancy and tumor formation by generating inappropriate proliferation and survival signals (2). Antibodies specific for phospho-tyrosine (3,4) have been invaluable reagents in these studies. The phospho-tyrosine monoclonal antibodies developed by Cell Signaling Technology are exceptionally sensitive tools for studying tyrosine phosphorylation and monitoring tyrosine kinase activity in high throughput drug discovery.

$248
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunofluorescence (Paraffin), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in cellular signaling (1). Research studies have shown that in cancer, unregulated tyrosine kinase activity can drive malignancy and tumor formation by generating inappropriate proliferation and survival signals (2). Antibodies specific for phospho-tyrosine (3,4) have been invaluable reagents in these studies. The phospho-tyrosine monoclonal antibodies developed by Cell Signaling Technology are exceptionally sensitive tools for studying tyrosine phosphorylation and monitoring tyrosine kinase activity in high throughput drug discovery.

$248
200 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a key role in cellular signaling (1). Research studies have shown that in cancer, unregulated tyrosine kinase activity can drive malignancy and tumor formation by generating inappropriate proliferation and survival signals (2). Antibodies specific for phospho-tyrosine (3,4) have been invaluable reagents in these studies. The phospho-tyrosine monoclonal antibodies developed by Cell Signaling Technology are exceptionally sensitive tools for studying tyrosine phosphorylation and monitoring tyrosine kinase activity in high throughput drug discovery.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: The 14-3-3 proteins are a highly conserved family of proteins involved in the regulation of cell survival, apoptosis, proliferation and checkpoint control (1-5). Biological regulation by 14-3-3 is mediated through phosphorylation-dependent protein-protein interactions (6). Two different phospho-Ser-containing motifs are found within nearly all known 14-3-3 binding proteins (7). Motif 1 (Arg/Lys and Ser at positions -3 and -2, phospho-Ser at position 0, and Pro at position +2) is found in critical regulatory proteins including Bad, cdc25C, FKHRL1, PKC and c-Raf (5,7). Phospho-(Ser) 14-3-3 Binding Motif Polyclonal and (4E2) Monoclonal Antibodies provide powerful tools for the discovery and characterization of potential 14-3-3 binding proteins containing this motif and for high throughput drug discovery.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: A hallmark of signal transduction pathways is the reversible phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues within specific sequences, or motifs, in target proteins. Specific signaling motifs include not only sequences that are recognized by protein kinases (1), but also those that are recognized by phosphorylation-dependent binding proteins such as 14-3-3 (2). These modular phosphoprotein interacting domains are critical elements in modulating, directing and amplifying intracellular communications. CST has pioneered the development of phospho-motif specific antibodies, which are invaluable tools for probing the complexity of phospho-regulatory pathways.

$248
400 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Acetylation of lysine, like phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, is an important reversible modification controlling protein activity. The conserved amino-terminal domains of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) contain lysines that are acetylated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) (1). Signaling resulting in acetylation/deacetylation of histones, transcription factors, and other proteins affects a diverse array of cellular processes including chromatin structure and gene activity, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (2-6). Recent proteomic surveys suggest that acetylation of lysine residues may be a widespread and important form of posttranslational protein modification that affects thousands of proteins involved in control of cell cycle and metabolism, longevity, actin polymerization, and nuclear transport (7,8). The regulation of protein acetylation status is impaired in cancer and polyglutamine diseases (9), and HDACs have become promising targets for anti-cancer drugs currently in development (10).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: The MAPK and CDK families of serine/threonine protein kinases play important roles in proliferation and cell cycle control. These kinases phosphorylate threonine or serine followed by a proline residue (1-3). MAPK phosphorylates substrates with the consensus sequence PX(S/T)P, and CDKs phosphorylate substrates containing the consensus sequence (S/T)PXR/K. Cell Signaling Technology has developed antibodies that bind to phospho-threonine followed by proline, motifs PXS*/T*P and/or S*PXR/K, for use in the study and discovery of new MAPK and CDK substrates (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
All Species Expected, Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Acetylation of lysine, like phosphorylation of serine, threonine or tyrosine, is an important reversible modification controlling protein activity. The conserved amino-terminal domains of the four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4) contain lysines that are acetylated by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and deacetylated by histone deacetylases (HDACs) (1). Signaling resulting in acetylation/deacetylation of histones, transcription factors, and other proteins affects a diverse array of cellular processes including chromatin structure and gene activity, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (2-6). Recent proteomic surveys suggest that acetylation of lysine residues may be a widespread and important form of posttranslational protein modification that affects thousands of proteins involved in control of cell cycle and metabolism, longevity, actin polymerization, and nuclear transport (7,8). The regulation of protein acetylation status is impaired in cancer and polyglutamine diseases (9), and HDACs have become promising targets for anti-cancer drugs currently in development (10).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Pig

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important enzyme in the cardiovascular system. It catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), a key regulator of blood pressure, vascular remodeling, and angiogenesis (1,2). The activity of eNOS is regulated by phosphorylation at multiple sites. The two most thoroughly studied sites are the activation site Ser1177 and the inhibitory site Thr495 (3). Several protein kinases including Akt/PKB, PKA, and AMPK activate eNOS by phosphorylating Ser1177 in response to various stimuli (4,5). In contrast, bradykinin and H2O2 activate eNOS activity by promoting both Ser1177 phosphorylation and Thr495 dephosphorylation (6,7).