|Human, Mouse, Rat|
Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a negative regulator of the cell-intrinsic innate immune response (1). Research studies have identified mutations in SAMHD1 as a cause of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, an autoimmune disease characterized by elevated production of interferon-α and symptoms resembling congenital viral infection (1). SAMHD1 was identified as the restriction factor that renders most myeloid cells refractory to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (2-4). Expression of the viral protein Vpx in refractory cells targets SAMHD1 for ubiquitin-mediated degradation and relieves HIV restriction. SAMHD1 prevents autoimmunity and HIV infection by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), thereby limiting inappropriate immune activation by self nucleic acid and inhibiting reverse transcription of the HIV genome (4-6).
Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: MutT Homolog 1 (MTH1), an oxidized purine nucleoside triphosphatase, hydrolyzes potentially mutagenic oxidized nucleotide triphosphates, preventing their accumulation in nucleotide pools and their incorporation into DNA and RNA (1). In addition to its function in sanitizing the cell’s nucleotide pool, MTH1 has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects in RAS-transformed tumors (2). Researchers have shown that, while not essential in normal cells, MTH1 is required for cancer cell survival due to increased oxidative damage, and that inhibition of MTH1 activity suppresses cancer growth (3,4).