Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Folic Acid Metabolic Process

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. 5-methyltetrahydrofolate donates its methyl group for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Methionine is further converted to S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), a major reactive methyl carrier. DNA methyltransferases and histone methyltransferases use SAM to methylate DNA and histones with concomitant conversion of SAM to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) (1, 2). In addition, MTHFR is inhibited by SAM and this feedback inhibition is partially reduced by SAH (3). Metabolically regulated levels of SAM and SAM/SAH ratio are shown to predict histone methylation levels, indicating the important role of enzymes in one-carbon metabolism including MTHFR in determining histone methylation status (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Serine hydroxymethyltransferases 1 and 2 (SHMT1, SHMT2) are cytoplasmic and mitochondrial serine hydroxylmethyltransferases, respectively (1,2). They catalyze the conversion of serine to glycine with the transfer of β-carbon from serine to tetrahydrofolate (THF) to form 5, 10-methylene-THF (1, 2). Research studies indicate that SHMT1 hemizygosity is associated with higher risk of intestinal cancer in mice of a certain genetic background (3). Suppression of SHMT2 was shown to block cell proliferation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides (1,2, reviewed in 3). This process is catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS), a homodimer composed of two 30 kDa subunits. TS is an intracellular enzyme that provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate, making it a required enzyme in DNA biosynthesis with activity highest in proliferating cells (1). Being the exclusive source of dTMP, investigators have concluded that TS is also an important target for anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (1-5). 5-FU acts as a TS inhibitor and is active against solid tumors such as colon, breast, head, and neck. Research studies have demonstrated that patients with metastases expressing lower levels of TS have a higher response rate to treatment with 5-FU than patients with tumors that have increased levels of TS (5). Researchers continue to investigate TS expression in different types of cancers (6-10).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides (1,2, reviewed in 3). This process is catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS), a homodimer composed of two 30 kDa subunits. TS is an intracellular enzyme that provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate, making it a required enzyme in DNA biosynthesis with activity highest in proliferating cells (1). Being the exclusive source of dTMP, investigators have concluded that TS is also an important target for anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (1-5). 5-FU acts as a TS inhibitor and is active against solid tumors such as colon, breast, head, and neck. Research studies have demonstrated that patients with metastases expressing lower levels of TS have a higher response rate to treatment with 5-FU than patients with tumors that have increased levels of TS (5). Researchers continue to investigate TS expression in different types of cancers (6-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) to deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) is an essential step in the formation of thymine nucleotides (1,2, reviewed in 3). This process is catalyzed by thymidylate synthase (TS or TYMS), a homodimer composed of two 30 kDa subunits. TS is an intracellular enzyme that provides the sole de novo source of thymidylate, making it a required enzyme in DNA biosynthesis with activity highest in proliferating cells (1). Being the exclusive source of dTMP, investigators have concluded that TS is also an important target for anticancer agents such as 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (1-5). 5-FU acts as a TS inhibitor and is active against solid tumors such as colon, breast, head, and neck. Research studies have demonstrated that patients with metastases expressing lower levels of TS have a higher response rate to treatment with 5-FU than patients with tumors that have increased levels of TS (5). Researchers continue to investigate TS expression in different types of cancers (6-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) is a cytosolic selenoprotein which reduces hydrogen peroxide to water (1). GPX1 is the most abundant and ubiquitous among the five GPX isoforms identified so far (2). It is an important component in the anti-oxidative defense in cells and is associated with a variety of disease conditions, such as colon cancer (3), coronary artery disease (4) and insulin resistance (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Podoplanin (aggrus, glycoprotein 36) is a single-pass transmembrane protein belonging to the type-1 family of sialomucin-like glycoproteins. Podoplanin was first described in the rat as a surface glycoprotein that regulated podocyte morphology (1). It is now commonly used as a marker of lymphatic endothelial cells, where its expression is associated with the process of lymphangiogenesis (2). Its role in this regard is presumably due to its putative involvement in regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics (3). Research studies have shown that podoplanin expression is upregulated in a number of tumor types including colorectal cancers (4), oral squamous cell carcinomas (5), and germ cell tumors (6), with higher expression levels often associated with more aggressive tumors (7). Research studies have suggested a functional role for podoplanin in the stromal microenvironment of tumors. For example, it has been reported that podoplanin expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) is positively associated with a stromal environment that promotes cancer progression (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: NADP+ dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, the last step in one-carbon (1-C) flow from mitochondria to cytoplasm (1,2). These one-carbon end products are required for de novo synthesis of thymidylate and purines. In the mitochondria, these essential one-carbon products are formed by a series of reactions catalyzed by a pair of enzymes (MTHFD2 and MTHFD1L), but by the trifunctional MTHFD1 enzyme in the cytoplasm (3). The 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase MTHFD1L is widely expressed in most adult tissues and at all stages of mammalian embryonic development (1). Research studies using MTHFD1L knockout mice indicate that MTHFD1L plays an essential role in neural tube formation; mice lacking MTHFD1L displayed neural tube and craniofacial defects leading to embryonic lethality (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Formimidoyltransferase-cyclodeaminase (FTCD) catalyzes two key consecutive reactions in the histidine degradation pathway and links histidine catabolism to one-carbon metabolism. It converts tetrahydrofolate (THF) to 5, 10-methenyl-THF (1,2). Loss of FTCD decreases the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drug methotrexate, an inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). DHFR reduces dihydrofolate to tetrahydrofolate, an essential cofactor for nucleotide biosynthesis. Lack of FTCD leads to higher levels of tetrahydrofolate in methotrexate-treated cells, therefore reducing the effect of methotrexate. Conversely, greater depletion of tetrahydrofolate by FTCD through enhanced histidine degradation pathway may boost the efficacy of methotrexate (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: NADP+ dependent methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1-like (MTHFD1L) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the production of formate from 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, the last step in one-carbon (1-C) flow from mitochondria to cytoplasm (1,2). These one-carbon end products are required for de novo synthesis of thymidylate and purines. In the mitochondria, these essential one-carbon products are formed by a series of reactions catalyzed by a pair of enzymes (MTHFD2 and MTHFD1L), but by the trifunctional MTHFD1 enzyme in the cytoplasm (3). The 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate synthetase MTHFD1L is widely expressed in most adult tissues and at all stages of mammalian embryonic development (1). Research studies using MTHFD1L knockout mice indicate that MTHFD1L plays an essential role in neural tube formation; mice lacking MTHFD1L displayed neural tube and craniofacial defects leading to embryonic lethality (4).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, also known as FOLH1), a type II transmembrane protein of the M28 family, has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase activity. PSMA was originally identified in the LNCaP cell line, which was derived from a prostate adenocarcinoma lymph node metastasis (1,2). PSMA is an established prostate cancer marker (3); however, it is expressed in other tissues, including kidney, liver, and urinary bladder (4), and it is associated with tumor neovasculature (5) as well. Research studies suggest that PSMA is both a potential diagnostic readout and therapeutic target (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA, also known as FOLH1), a type II transmembrane protein of the M28 family, has both folate hydrolase and N-acetylated-alpha-linked acidic dipeptidase activity. PSMA was originally identified in the LNCaP cell line, which was derived from a prostate adenocarcinoma lymph node metastasis (1,2). PSMA is an established prostate cancer marker (3); however, it is expressed in other tissues, including kidney, liver, and urinary bladder (4), and it is associated with tumor neovasculature (5) as well. Research studies suggest that PSMA is both a potential diagnostic readout and therapeutic target (6-8).

$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The ATPase inhibitor factor 1 (ATPIF1) gene encodes a mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor that limits ATP depletion when mitochondrial respiration is impaired (1). ATPIF1 becomes activated following a drop in pH, binding to β-F1-ATPase, thereby inhibiting the hydrolase activity of the H+-ATP synthase (1,2). In addition to its role as an ATP hydrolase, ATPIF1 has also been shown to play a regulatory role in cellular energy metabolism by triggering the induction of aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells resulting in their Warburg phenotype (3,4). Research studies demonstrate that the overexpression of ATPIF1 in several human carcinomas further supports its participation in oncogenesis and provides insight into the altered metabolism of cancer cells, which includes the reprogramming of energetic metabolism toward glycolysis (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: MTHFD2 is a bifunctional methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase/cyclohydrolase involved in mitochondrial folate metabolism (1). MTHFD2 expression is developmentally regulated, as it is expressed in embryos but not in most adult tissues. Recent research studies have shown that MTHFD2 is consistently overexpressed in many cancer types and correlated with poor survival in breast cancer (2-5). Overexpression of MTHFD2 promotes cell proliferation while its depletion induces cell death in human cancer cells (6).