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Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Protein Binding

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD31 (Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: PECAM-1), a member of the Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, is expressed by circulating platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, some T cells, and endothelial cells and modulates cell adhesion, endothelial cell migration, and angiogenesis (1). CD31 is phosphorylated on Tyr686 at the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail upon various stimuli (e.g. mechanical or oxidative stress), presumably by Src family members (2). The tyrosine phosphorylation mediates associations with a number of SH2 domain-containing binding partners such as PI3 kinase, SHIP, PLCγ, and SHP-2. Thus, CD31 serves as a scaffold for various signaling molecules (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated CD31 (PECAM-1) (D8V9E) XP® Rabbit mAb #77699.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CD31 (Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: PECAM-1), a member of the Ig superfamily of cell adhesion molecules, is expressed by circulating platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, some T cells, and endothelial cells and modulates cell adhesion, endothelial cell migration, and angiogenesis (1). CD31 is phosphorylated on Tyr686 at the cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal tail upon various stimuli (e.g. mechanical or oxidative stress), presumably by Src family members (2). The tyrosine phosphorylation mediates associations with a number of SH2 domain-containing binding partners such as PI3 kinase, SHIP, PLCγ, and SHP-2. Thus, CD31 serves as a scaffold for various signaling molecules (3).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The MSLN gene encodes a 69 kDa precursor protein that is proteolytically cleaved to yield Megakaryocyte Potentiating Factor (MPF) and a GPI-anchored membrane protein termed mesothelin (1). Expression of (cleaved) mesothelin is largely confined to mesothelial cells of normal pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum, but has been reported to be overexpressed in some cancers, including mesothelioma, and some pancreatic and ovarian adenocarcinomas (1,2). Although suggested to be involved in cell adhesion, the physiological functions of mesothelin have not been determined. It is known, however, that mesothelin can be shed from the cell surface following cleavage by TNF-α converting enzyme. Research studies show that serum levels of mesothelin are markedly increased in patients with mesothelioma and ovarian cancer (1), suggesting that serum mesothelin levels may have utility as a cancer biomarker (1-3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Endogenous cannabinoids have been implicated in addictive behaviors and drug abuse (1). Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 (FAAH1) is a plasma membrane-bound hydrolase that converts oleamide to oleic acid (2). This hydrolase also converts the cannabinoid anandamide, the endogenous ligand for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, to arachidonic acid, suggesting a role in fatty-acid amide inactivation (2). Mice lacking FAAH1 have significantly higher levels of anandamide in the brain and show decreased sensitivity to pain, further indicating a role for FAAH1 in the regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in vivo (3). FAAH1 null mice also demonstrate an increased preference for alcohol and an increased voluntary uptake of alcohol as compared to wild-type mice, indicating a role of FAAH1 in modulating addictive behaviors (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Endogenous cannabinoids have been implicated in addictive behaviors and drug abuse (1). Fatty-acid amide hydrolase 1 (FAAH1) is a plasma membrane-bound hydrolase that converts oleamide to oleic acid (2). This hydrolase also converts the cannabinoid anandamide, the endogenous ligand for the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, to arachidonic acid, suggesting a role in fatty-acid amide inactivation (2). Mice lacking FAAH1 have significantly higher levels of anandamide in the brain and show decreased sensitivity to pain, further indicating a role for FAAH1 in the regulation of endocannabinoid signaling in vivo (3). FAAH1 null mice also demonstrate an increased preference for alcohol and an increased voluntary uptake of alcohol as compared to wild-type mice, indicating a role of FAAH1 in modulating addictive behaviors (1).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1-3). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis. The 3 largest subunits forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the other smaller subunits, including COX IV, are nuclear-encoded. Research studies have shown that deficiency in COX activity correlates with a number of human diseases (4). The COX IV antibody can be used effectively as a mitochondrial loading control in cell-based research assays.

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology (CST) antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated antibody (COX IV (3E11) Rabbit mAb #4850).
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1-3). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis. The 3 largest subunits forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the other smaller subunits, including COX IV, are nuclear-encoded. Research studies have shown that deficiency in COX activity correlates with a number of human diseases (4). The COX IV antibody can be used effectively as a mitochondrial loading control in cell-based research assays.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainate-, and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are comprised of four subunits (GluR 1-4), which assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers to mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the central nervous system. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization, and plasticity (1). In contrast to GluR 2-containing AMPARs, AMPARs that lack GluR 2 are permeable to calcium (2). Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phosphorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties of AMPARs. Research studies have implicated activity changes in AMPARs in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and epilepsy (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-7 (CMH-1, Mch3, ICE-LAP3) has been identified as a major contributor to the execution of apoptosis (1-4). Caspase-7, like caspase-3, is an effector caspase that is responsible for cleaving downstream substrates such as (ADP-ribose) polymerase and PARP (1,3). During apoptosis, caspase-7 is activated through proteolytic processing by upstream caspases at Asp23, Asp198, and Asp206 to produce the mature subunits (1,3). Similar to caspase-2 and -3, caspase-7 preferentially cleaves substrates following the recognition sequence DEVD (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) is a hetero-oligomeric enzyme consisting of 13 subunits localized to the inner mitochondrial membrane (1-3). It is the terminal enzyme complex in the respiratory chain, catalyzing the reduction of molecular oxygen to water coupled to the translocation of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane to drive ATP synthesis. The 3 largest subunits forming the catalytic core are encoded by mitochondrial DNA, while the other smaller subunits, including COX IV, are nuclear-encoded. Research studies have shown that deficiency in COX activity correlates with a number of human diseases (4). The COX IV antibody can be used effectively as a mitochondrial loading control in cell-based research assays.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (DLAT) transfers an acetyl group from pyruvate to CoA to synthesize acetyl-CoA (1-4). This protein, also known as the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), has been implicated in the literature as the primary autoantigen in primary biliary cirrhosis (2-5). Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) are likely formed when DLAT is exposed to the immune system in apoptotic cells of the bile duct (3,5). Research studies have shown that in some cases, cosmetics, NSAIDs, chewing gum, acetaminophen, and other compounds could trigger exposure of DLAT in sensitive individuals (3). The presence of AMAs is often detectable before disease diagnosis (4,5). Research studies have also shown that activation of the Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) pathway is involved in the progression from a subclinical to clinical state (4).

$269
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (ACPP or PAP) is a member of the histidine acid phosphatase family. It is a non-specific phosphatase that is capable of dephosphorylating tyrosine residues as well as phospholipids under mildly acidic conditions. ACPP has ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in pain-sensing neurons where it converts AMP to adenosine, suppressing the pain response (1,2). ACPP occurs as two isoforms that are both heavily glycosylated. The secreted phosphatase (sPAP) is found predominantly in the prostate and seminal plasma, while the cellular isoform (cPAP) is broadly expressed at very low levels and is associated with the plasma and lysosomal membranes (3-5). Cellular PAP has been shown to dephosphorylate ErbB2 at various tyrosine residues effectively terminating signaling (6). Furthermore, the physical interaction between cPAP and ErbB2 appears to regulate androgen sensitivity in prostate cancer cells. Loss of cPAP in androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells results in the development of a castration-resistant phenotype suggesting that ACPP plays a significant role in prostate cancer cell growth (7). ACPP is expressed in metastatic cells arising from prostate cancer - especially in prostate-derived bone metastasis - suggesting that it may be a relevant diagnostic indicator of prostate cancer re-emergence in bone (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: AMPA- (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid), kainate-, and NMDA- (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are the three main families of ionotropic glutamate-gated ion channels. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are comprised of four subunits (GluR 1-4), which assemble as homo- or hetero-tetramers to mediate the majority of fast excitatory transmissions in the central nervous system. AMPARs are implicated in synapse formation, stabilization, and plasticity (1). In contrast to GluR 2-containing AMPARs, AMPARs that lack GluR 2 are permeable to calcium (2). Post-transcriptional modifications (alternative splicing, nuclear RNA editing) and post-translational modifications (glycosylation, phosphorylation) result in a very large number of permutations, fine-tuning the kinetic properties of AMPARs. Research studies have implicated activity changes in AMPARs in a variety of diseases including Alzheimer’s, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), stroke, and epilepsy (1).

$426
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: IHC-Leica® Bond™, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD5 is a type-I transmembrane protein belonging to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) family, characterized by the presence of at least one SRCR domain of 90-110 amino acids. CD5 is expressed by all mature T cells, the B-1a subset of mature B cells, and some leukemic B cells. Its expression is increased in regulatory T and B cells (Tregs/Bregs). Anergic T and B cells also have elevated CD5 expression. Elevated levels of CD5 are also found in many autoimmune disorders (1-3). CD5 is associated with the T cell receptor (TCR) and negatively modulates T cell activation and differentiation. CD5 expression on the tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes is inversely correlated with their antitumor activity (4-6). Recently it was reported that CD5 directly binds to IL6 and can mediate downstream signaling. CD5+ B cells promote tumor growth in animal models (7). Reagents targeting CD5 have been actively pursued as therapeutic interventions for cancer and other conditions (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of more than 100 proteins whose normal expression is largely restricted to immune privileged germ cells of the testis, ovary, and trophoblast cells of the placenta. Although most normal somatic tissues are void of CTA expression, due to epigenetic silencing of gene expression, their expression is upregulated in a wide variety of human solid and liquid tumors (1,2). As such, CTAs have garnered much attention as attractive targets for a variety of immunotherapy-based approaches to selectively attack tumors (3).

$348
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PD-L1 (E1L3N®) XP® Rabbit mAb #13684.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1, B7-H1, CD274) is a member of the B7 family of cell surface ligands that regulate T cell activation and immune responses. The PD-L1 ligand binds the PD-1 transmembrane receptor and inhibits T cell activation. PD-L1 was discovered following a search for novel B7 protein homologs and was later shown to be expressed by antigen presenting cells, activated T cells, and tissues including placenta, heart, and lung (1-3). Similar in structure to related B7 family members, PD-L1 protein contains extracellular IgV and IgC domains and a short, cytoplasmic region. Research studies demonstrate that PD-L1 is expressed in several tumor types, including melanoma, ovary, colon, lung, breast, and renal cell carcinomas (4-6). Expression of PD-L1 in cancer is associated with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, which mediate PD-L1 expression through the release of interferon gamma (7). Additional research links PD-L1 expression to cancers associated with viral infections (8,9).