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Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Regulation of Caspase Activity

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-2 (Nedd2/ICH-1) is a Class I caspase with a long prodomain necessary for nuclear localization. Upon activation of the apoptotic pathway, the procaspase is cleaved at Asp316, producing a 14 kDa fragment and a 32 kDa prodomain/large subunit. Subsequent processing at Asp152 and Asp330 produces an 18 kDa large subunit and a 12 kDa small fragment (1). Caspase-2 is the nuclear apoptotic respondent to cellular genotoxic stress or mitotic catastrophe. Activation occurs upon recruitment to a complex containing a p53-induced death domain protein, PIDD (2). This suggests caspase-2 can be a nuclear initiator caspase with a requirement for caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation in downstream apoptotic events (3, 4). In apoptotic pathways resulting from UV-induced DNA damage, processing of caspase-2 occurs downstream of mitochondrial dysfunction and of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, extending a possible role for caspase-2 as a parallel effector caspase (5).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Apoptosis induced through the CD95 receptor (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates caspase-8 and leads to the release of the caspase-8 active fragments, p18 and p10 (1-3). Activated caspase-8 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-1, -3, -6, and -7. Caspase-3 ultimately elicits the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$111
20 µl
$260
200 µl
$630
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Apoptosis induced through the CD95 receptor (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates caspase-8 and leads to the release of the caspase-8 active fragments, p18 and p10 (1-3). Activated caspase-8 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-1, -3, -6, and -7. Caspase-3 ultimately elicits the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage.

$305
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Caspase-3 (8G10) Rabbit mAb #9665.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are a family of more than 100 proteins whose normal expression is largely restricted to immune privileged germ cells of the testis, ovary, and trophoblast cells of the placenta. Although most normal somatic tissues are void of CTA expression, due to epigenetic silencing of gene expression, their expression is upregulated in a wide variety of human solid and liquid tumors (1,2). As such, CTAs have garnered much attention as attractive targets for a variety of immunotherapy-based approaches to selectively attack tumors (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), also referred to as Apo2 ligand, first identified based on its sequence homology to TNF and Fas/Apo ligand is a member of the TNF family of cytokines and either exists as a type II membrane or soluble protein (1,2). TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of transformed cell lines and plays a role in anti-tumor and anti-viral immune surveillance (3). TRAIL signals via binding with death receptors DR4 (TRAIL-R1) (4) and DR5 (TRAIL-R2) (5-8) which can trigger apoptosis as well as NF-κB activation (7,9). Death domains on these receptors leads to the recruitment of a death-induced signaling complex (DISC) leading to caspase-8 and subsequent caspase-3 activation. In addition, TRAIL binds with decoy receptors DcR1 (TRAIL-R3) (10-13) and DcR2 (TRAIL-R4, TRUNDD) (14-15) which lack the functional cytoplasmic death domain antagonizing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) has also been identified as receptor capable of inhibiting TRAIL-induced apoptosis (16). The selectivity of soluble TRAIL at triggering apoptosis in transformed cells as compared to normal cells has led to its investigation as a potential cancer therapeutic (17-18).

$122
20 µl
$307
100 µl
$719
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Apoptosis induced through the CD95 receptor (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates caspase-8 and leads to the release of the caspase-8 active fragments, p18 and p10 (1-3). Activated caspase-8 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-1, -3, -6, and -7. Caspase-3 ultimately elicits the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage.

$327
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to biotin under optimal conditions. The biotinylated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Cleaved Caspase-3 (Asp175) (5A1E) Rabbit mAb #9664.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Apoptosis induced through the CD95 receptor (Fas/APO-1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) activates caspase-8 and leads to the release of the caspase-8 active fragments, p18 and p10 (1-3). Activated caspase-8 cleaves and activates downstream effector caspases such as caspase-1, -3, -6, and -7. Caspase-3 ultimately elicits the morphological hallmarks of apoptosis, including DNA fragmentation and cell shrinkage.

$122
20 µl
$323
100 µl
$755
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$122
20 µl
$261
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cellular FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) is a regulator of apoptosis that has various names, such as c-FLIP (1), Casper (2), CLARP (3), FLAME (4), I-FLICE (5), MRIT (6), CASH (7), and Usurpin (8). FLIP is expressed as two alternative splice isoforms, FLIP short (FLIPS) and FLIP long (FLIPL). FLIPS contains two death effector domains (DEDs) like those found on the death receptor adaptor protein FADD and the pro-domain of caspase-8. FLIPL shares significant homology with caspase-8 (FLICE), and contains an additional death effector domain, but FLIPL lacks the catalytic active site of the caspases and does not have protease activity. Both FLIP isoforms have been reported to interact with FADD and pro-caspase-8. The role of FLIP in apoptosis is controversial as some research studies have reported it to be anti-apoptotic, while others claim that it is pro-apoptotic. Overexpression of FLIPL can lead to caspase-8 heterodimers that produce an active protease, resulting in apoptosis. However, at physiological levels, it is thought that the binding of FLIP to the DED of FADD results in inhibition of caspase-8 processing. Reduction of FLIP by siRNA or gene targeting sensitizes cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. FLIP has also been implicated in the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis and is upregulated in some cancer types including Hodgkin's lymphoma and ovarian and colon carcinomas (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Arrestin proteins function as negative regulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling. Cognate ligand binding stimulates GPCR phosphorylation, which is followed by binding of arrestin to the phosphorylated GPCR and the eventual internalization of the receptor and desensitization of GPCR signaling (1). Four distinct mammalian arrestin proteins are known. Arrestin 1 (also known as S-arrestin) and arrestin 4 (X-arrestin) are localized to retinal rods and cones, respectively. Arrestin 2 (also known as β-arrestin 1) and arrestin 3 (β-arrestin 2) are ubiquitously expressed and bind to most GPCRs (2). β-arrestins function as adaptor and scaffold proteins and play important roles in other processes, such as recruiting c-Src family proteins to GPCRs in Erk activation pathways (3,4). β-arrestins are also involved in some receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (5-8). Additional evidence suggests that β-arrestins translocate to the nucleus and help regulate transcription by binding transcriptional cofactors (9,10).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The tumor necrosis factor receptor family, which includes TNF-RI, Fas, DR3, DR4, DR5, and DR6, plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis in various physiological systems (1,2). The receptors are activated by a family of cytokines that include TNF, FasL, and TRAIL. They are characterized by a highly conserved extracellular region containing cysteine-rich repeats and a conserved intracellular region of about 80 amino acids termed the death domain (DD). The DD is important for transducing the death signal by recruiting other DD containing adaptor proteins (FADD, TRADD, RIP) to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), resulting in activation of caspases.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cellular FLIP (FLICE inhibitory protein) is a regulator of apoptosis that has various names, such as c-FLIP (1), Casper (2), CLARP (3), FLAME (4), I-FLICE (5), MRIT (6), CASH (7), and Usurpin (8). FLIP is expressed as two alternative splice isoforms, FLIP short (FLIPS) and FLIP long (FLIPL). FLIPS contains two death effector domains (DEDs) like those found on the death receptor adaptor protein FADD and the pro-domain of caspase-8. FLIPL shares significant homology with caspase-8 (FLICE), and contains an additional death effector domain, but FLIPL lacks the catalytic active site of the caspases and does not have protease activity. Both FLIP isoforms have been reported to interact with FADD and pro-caspase-8. The role of FLIP in apoptosis is controversial as some research studies have reported it to be anti-apoptotic, while others claim that it is pro-apoptotic. Overexpression of FLIPL can lead to caspase-8 heterodimers that produce an active protease, resulting in apoptosis. However, at physiological levels, it is thought that the binding of FLIP to the DED of FADD results in inhibition of caspase-8 processing. Reduction of FLIP by siRNA or gene targeting sensitizes cells to death receptor-mediated apoptosis. FLIP has also been implicated in the resistance of cancer cells to apoptosis and is upregulated in some cancer types including Hodgkin's lymphoma and ovarian and colon carcinomas (9).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caspase-3 (CPP-32, Apoptain, Yama, SCA-1) is a critical executioner of apoptosis, as it is either partially or totally responsible for the proteolytic cleavage of many key proteins, such as the nuclear enzyme poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) (1). Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing of its inactive zymogen into activated p17 and p12 fragments. Cleavage of caspase-3 requires the aspartic acid residue at the P1 position (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1 (PMAIP1, Noxa) is a small protein that plays a key role in mediating apoptotic signaling. Noxa is a pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family protein that contains a single Bcl-2 homology (BH3) domain (1). Members of the “BH3-only” family (e.g. Noxa, Bad, Bim, Puma, Bid, Bik, and Hrk) are highly regulated proteins that induce apoptosis through BH3-dependent interaction with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (2). Noxa localizes to mitochondria and binds the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and A1/Bfl-1, but does not bind to Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL (3). The Noxa protein competes with Mcl-1 for binding to mitochondrial Bak protein. Noxa was originally identified as a phorbol ester inducible protein that is highly expressed in adult T-cell leukemia cell lines (4). Several different stimuli, including DNA damage, hypoxia, interferon, viral infection, and double-stranded RNA, induce Noxa expression in cells. Higher levels of Noxa protein are typically found hematopoietic cells (3,5,6).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: α-Synuclein is a protein of 140-amino acids expressed abundantly in the brain. α-Synuclein is also the main component of pathogenic Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. Research studies have shown that mutations of the α-synuclein gene are linked to Parkinson's disease (1).