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Monoclonal Antibody Western Blotting Regulation of Transcription

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Oct-1 (POU2F1) is a ubiquitously expressed, octamer-binding transcription factor containing a POU domain with a homeobox subdomain (1). Oct-1 has been shown to interact with several transcription factors in mediating specific gene expression, including SNAPc (2), OBF-1 (a B-cell transcriptional coactivator protein) (3), TFIIB (4), and TBP (TATA-box-binding protein) (5). Its POU DNA-binding domain allows Oct-1 the flexibility to facilitate the binding and recruitment of several tissue-specific cofactors to either positively or negatively regulate a variety of genes, exerting an important role in development (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved heterohexameric protein complex that associates with DNA at or near initiation of DNA replication sites. All six ORC subunits are essential for initiation of DNA replication (1-3), and ORC may be involved in regulation of gene expression in response to stress (4). ORC binding to DNA permits the ordered binding of other proteins such as cdc6 and MCMs to form pre-replication complexes (Pre-RCs). Pre-RCs form between telophase and early G1 phase of the cell cycle and are inactivated at the onset of DNA synthesis, allowing coordinated regulation of DNA replication and cell division (5). Modification of one or more of the six ORC subunits may be responsible for its inactivation during S phase, but the chromatin binding behavior of the ORC subunits during the cell division cycle is still under investigation (6-7).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitinating enzymes (UBEs) catalyze protein ubiquitination, a reversible process countered by deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) action (1,2). Five DUB subfamilies are recognized, including the USP, UCH, OTU, MJD and JAMM enzymes. Herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP, USP7) is an important deubiquitinase belonging to USP subfamily. A key HAUSP function is to bind and deubiquitinate the p53 transcription factor and an associated regulator protein Mdm2, thereby stabilizing both proteins (3,4). In addition to regulating essential components of the p53 pathway, HAUSP also modifies other ubiquitinylated proteins such as members of the FoxO family of forkhead transcription factors and the mitotic stress checkpoint protein CHFR (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Pirin is a highly conserved nuclear protein and a member of the cupin superfamily of proteins, all of which contain two conserved β-barrel fold domains (1). Pirin functions as a co-factor for NFI/CTF1 and Bcl-3, implicating it in DNA replication, transcriptional activation and apoptosis (2,3). Both human and bacterial pirins catalyze the di-oxygenation of quercetin, one of a class of widespread naturally occurring flavenoid compounds that have anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activities (4). Flavenoids exert these beneficial activities by functioning as antioxidants that stabilize cellular free radical molecules and by directly modulating cell signaling pathways involving PI 3-kinase, Akt/PKB, PKC and MAP kinases (5). Quercetin has also been directly implicated in the regulation of NF-κB activity; thus, Pirin may exert its apoptotic functions both by directly regulating Bcl-3/NF-κB activity and by modulating quercetin levels in the cell (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Jak-Stat signaling pathway is utilized by a large number of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones (1). Receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak family members triggers phosphorylation of Stat proteins, resulting in their nuclear translocation, binding to specific DNA elements, and subsequent activation of transcription. The remarkable range and specificity of responses regulated by the Stats is determined, in part, by the tissue-specific expression of different cytokine receptors, Jaks, and Stats, as well as by the combinatorial coupling of various Stat members to different receptors (2). Stat4 is predominantly expressed in the spleen, thymus, and testis and has been most extensively investigated as the mediator of IL-12 responses (3-8). Activation of Stat4 is associated with phosphorylation at Tyr693 (9).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Jak-Stat signaling pathway is utilized by a large number of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones (1). Receptor-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Jak family members triggers phosphorylation of Stat proteins, resulting in their nuclear translocation, binding to specific DNA elements, and subsequent activation of transcription. The remarkable range and specificity of responses regulated by the Stats is determined, in part, by the tissue-specific expression of different cytokine receptors, Jaks, and Stats, as well as by the combinatorial coupling of various Stat members to different receptors (2). Stat4 is predominantly expressed in the spleen, thymus, and testis and has been most extensively investigated as the mediator of IL-12 responses (3-8). Activation of Stat4 is associated with phosphorylation at Tyr693 (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The ZFX (X-linked zinc finger protein) gene is expressed from the inactive X chromosome and is structurally similar to its homologue on the Y chromosome, ZFY (1). Transcripts of ZFX and ZFY encode proteins composed of a highly acidic amino-terminal domain and a carboxy-terminal zinc-finger motif that is commonly associated with nucleic acid-binding proteins (2). Both ZFY and ZFX are probable transcriptional activators and may function in sex determination (3). Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants of ZFX, encoding different isoforms, have been identified and may be functionally distinct (2). Conditional gene targeting studies in mouse have suggested ZFX is also required for self-renewal of embryonic and hematopoietic stem cells (4). ZFX has also been suggested to play a role in proliferation and expansion of B cells, and could contribute to lymphocyte homeostasis (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The transcription factor Th-inducing POZ/Krüppel-like factor (ThPOK, ZBTB7B, cKROX, ZFP67) is a transcriptional repressor belonging to the POK/ZBTB family of lymphoid cell development regulators (1). ThPOK is best known as a signature CD4+ Th cell transcription factor that is upregulated during the differentiation of CD4+ Th but not CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (1). Expression of ThPOK in developing T cells represses expression of CD8 and cytotoxic T cell effector genes, and indirectly promotes expression of CD4 by antagonizing RUNX-mediated CD4 repression (2-4). ThPOK expression has also been observed in NKT cells and γδ T cells (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: 5'-3' exoribonuclease 2 (XRN2) is a nuclear exonuclease that degrades RNA containing a 5’-monophosphate to component mononucleotides. XRN2 also plays an important role in the termination of transcription at the 3’-end of genes by displacing RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) from the DNA strand (1,2). According to the ‘torpedo’ model of transcription termination, XRN2 gains access to the 5’ phosphate of the nascent RNA during co-transcriptional polyadenylation site cleavage. XRN2 degrades RNA at a faster rate than RNAPII-mediated RNA synthesis, resulting in the eviction of RNAPII from the template (3-5). In addition, XRN2 is essential for maturation of 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA and small nucleolar RNA molecules (2). Several research studies suggest that XRN2 plays a role in the quality control check of RNA molecules. XRN2 co-transcriptionally degrades aberrant nuclear mRNA transcripts that result from defective 5’mRNA capping, splicing, or 3’end formation (6). XRN2 exonuclease rapidly degrades hypomodified tRNA and excess miRNA molecules, indicating that XRN2 likely regulates tRNA and miRNA quality control as well (7-9).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Class A basic helix-loop-helix protein 15 (MIST1, bHLHa15) is a highly conserved basic helix loop helix family transcription factor that binds E-box motifs and regulates the expression of developmentally regulated genes (1). MIST1 can bind DNA as a homodimer, or may heterodimerize with other bHLH proteins to regulate target gene expression (1). MIST1 is expressed in an array of tissues, including salivary glands, stomach, small intestine, and the pancreas, but is generally restricted to secretory cell subtypes (2). In the pancreas, MIST1 is essential for the maturation, maintenance, and function of acinar cells (3). In gastric chief cells, MIST1 regulates the expression of RAB26 and RAB3D, two GTPases that function to regulate secretory granule formation (4). Loss of MIST1 in gastric chief cells may be a potential marker of gastric epithelial neoplasia (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Lipin 1 was identified as a nuclear protein required for adipose tissue development (1). The expression of Lipin 1 is induced during adipocyte differentiation (1). The abnormal development of adipose tissues caused by mutations in the lipin 1 gene results in lipodystrophy, a condition associated with low body fat, fatty liver, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance (1). Lipin 1 plays a role in lipid metabolism in various tissues and cell types including liver, muscle, adipose tissues, and neuronal cell lines (2-4). It has dual functions at the molecular level: Lipin 1 serves as a transcriptional coactivator in liver, and a phosphatidate phosphatase in triglyceride and phospholipid biosynthesis pathways (5). Lipin 1 is regulated by mTOR, illustrating a connection between adipocyte development and nutrient-sensing pathways (6). It also mediates hepatic insulin signaling by TORC2/CRTC2 (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: ANP32A is the founding member of the acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 kDa (ANP32) family, which share two highly conserved regions: the N-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) sequence and the C-terminal acidic tail (1). ANP32A was originally purified as a potent, heat-stable protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-specific inhibitor, and subsequent studies suggested that it binds directly to the catalytic subunit of PP2A (2,3). ANP32A is a key component of acetyltransferase inhibitor complex that regulates chromatin remodeling and transcription (4,5). ANP32A also forms a multiunit complex with HuR that regulates RNA transport and stability (6). In addition, ANP32A is reported to play roles in apoptosis, neural differentiation and pathogenesis (7-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Chromatin IP-seq, Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Helios (Ikaros family zinc finger 2, IZKF2) is an Ikaros family transcription factor composed of several zinc fingers that mediate DNA binding and homodimerization or heterodimerization with other Ikaros family proteins (1,2). In the hematopoietic system, Helios expression is restricted to T cells and early hematopoietic progenitors (1,2). In regulatory T cells, expression of Helios contributes to an anergic phenotype by binding to the IL-2 promoter and suppressing IL-2 transcription (3). In addition, alteration of the corresponding Helios gene IZKF2 is one hallmark of low-hypodiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caveolae ("little caves") are 60-80 nm pits representing specialized plasma membrane domains in many cell types. The principal protein component of caveolae is caveolin, a small integral membrane protein composed of three family members, including the widely expressed caveolin-1 and -2, and the muscle-specific caveolin-3 (1). Caveolin proteins are required for caveolae formation and serve as scaffolding proteins for the recruitment of signaling proteins. Research studies in cavelolin-deficient mice implicate cavelolin proteins in several pathologies, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, pulmonary disease, and muscular dystrophies (2).The cavin proteins (cavin-1, -2, -3, and -4 in mammals) are a family of caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins involved in the biogenesis and stability of caveolae. Cavin proteins form homo- or hetero-oligomers whose composition is tissue-specific, which may confer distinct functions of caveolae in various tissues (3). Cavin-1 (PTRF), which is widely expressed, is required for caveolae formation and is thought to play roles in lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and IGF-1 receptor signaling (4-6). Research studies involving prostate cancer suggest that expression of cavin-1 is related to tumor progression and angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis (7-8).

$129
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Catenin δ-1 (p120 catenin) has an amino-terminal coiled-coil domain followed by a regulatory domain containing multiple phosphorylation sites and a central Armadillo repeat domain of ten linked 42-amino acid repeats. The carboxy-terminal tail has no known function (1). Catenin δ-1 fulfills critical roles in the regulation of cell-cell adhesion as it regulates E-cadherin turnover at the cell surface to determine the level of E-cadherin available for cell-cell adhesion (2). Catenin δ-1 has both positive and negative effects on cadherin-mediated adhesion (3). Actin dynamics are also regulated by catenin δ-1, which modulates RhoA, Rac, and cdc42 proteins (1). Analogous to β-catenin, catenin δ-1 translocates to the nucleus, although its role at this location is unclear. Many studies show that catenin δ-1 is expressed irregularly or is absent in various types of tumor cells, suggesting that catenin δ-1 may function as a tumor suppressor (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Caveolae ("little caves") are 60-80 nm pits representing specialized plasma membrane domains in many cell types. The principal protein component of caveolae is caveolin, a small integral membrane protein composed of three family members, including the widely expressed caveolin-1 and -2, and the muscle-specific caveolin-3 (1). Caveolin proteins are required for caveolae formation and serve as scaffolding proteins for the recruitment of signaling proteins. Research studies in cavelolin-deficient mice implicate cavelolin proteins in several pathologies, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, atherosclerosis, pulmonary disease, and muscular dystrophies (2).The cavin proteins (cavin-1, -2, -3, and -4 in mammals) are a family of caveolae-associated integral membrane proteins involved in the biogenesis and stability of caveolae. Cavin proteins form homo- or hetero-oligomers whose composition is tissue-specific, which may confer distinct functions of caveolae in various tissues (3). Cavin-1 (PTRF), which is widely expressed, is required for caveolae formation and is thought to play roles in lipid metabolism, adipocyte differentiation, and IGF-1 receptor signaling (4-6). Research studies involving prostate cancer suggest that expression of cavin-1 is related to tumor progression and angiogenesis/lymphangiogenesis (7-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The transcription factor CP2 (TFCP2, LSF) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that was initially shown to bind and activate the alpha-globin promoter in erythroid cells (1). Research studies show that TFCP2 functions as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. Overexpression of TFCP2 is seen in HCC patient samples and cell lines; TFCP2 expression correlates with high tumor grade and poor prognosis (2). Forced expression of TFCP2 in less aggressive HCC cells results in highly aggressive, angiogenic and metastatic tumors, while inhibition of TFCP2 abrogates growth and metastasis of highly aggressive HCC cells (2). Additional studies show that TFCP2 acts downstream of Notch1 in HCC cells, where it mediates Notch pathway signaling during proliferation and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (3). TFCP2 functions as an oncogene as it upregulates multiple genes involved in angiogenesis, cell invasion, and chemoresistance, including osteopontin, metalloproteinase-9, fibronectin 1, tight junction protein 1, and thymidylate synthase (2-5). Factor quinolinone inhibitor 1 (FQI1) is a small molecule inhibitor of TFCP2 that inhibits TFCP2 DNA-binding activity, reduces expression of TFCP2 target genes, and rapidly induces cell death in TFCP2-overexpressing HCC cell lines (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Mucins represent a family of glycoproteins characterized by repeat domains and dense O-glycosylation (1). MUC1 (or mucin 1) is aberrantly overexpressed in most human carcinomas. Increased expression of MUC1 in carcinomas reduces cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions. MUC1 is cleaved proteolytically, and the large ectodomain can remain associated with the small 25 kDa carboxy-terminal domain that contains a transmembrane segment and a 72-residue cytoplasmic tail (1). MUC1 interacts with ErbB family receptors and potentiates ERK1/2 activation (2). MUC1 also interacts with β-catenin, which is regulated by GSK-3β, PKCγ, and Src through phosphorylation at Ser44, Thr41, and Tyr46 of the MUC1 cytoplasmic tail (3-5). Overexpression of MUC1 potentiates transformation (6) and attenuates stress-induced apoptosis through the Akt or p53 pathways (7,8).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Small non-coding RNAs are important regulators of gene expression in higher eukaryotes (1,2). Several classes of small RNAs, including short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) (3), microRNAs (miRNAs) (4), and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) (5), have been identified. MicroRNAs are about 21 nucleotides in length and have been implicated in many cellular processes such as development, differentiation, and stress response (1,2). MicroRNAs regulate gene expression by modulating mRNA translation or stability (2). MicroRNAs function together with the protein components in the complexes called micro-ribonucleoproteins (miRNPs) (2). Among the most important components in these complexes are Argonaute proteins (1,2). There are four members in the mammalian Argonaute family and only Argonaute 2 (Ago2) possesses the Slicer endonuclease activity (1,2). Argonaute proteins participate in the various steps of microRNA-mediated gene silencing, such as repression of translation and mRNA turnover (1).