Microsize antibodies for $99 | Learn More >>

Polyclonal Antibody Clathrin Coat

Also showing Polyclonal Antibody Clathrin Coated Vesicle Membrane, Polyclonal Antibody Clathrin-Coated Vesicle

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Clathrin-coated vesicles provide for the intracellular transport of cargo proteins following endocytosis and during multiple vesicle trafficking pathways. Vesicles form at specialized areas of the cell membrane where clathrin and associated proteins form clathrin-coated pits. Invagination of these cell membrane-associated pits internalizes proteins and forms an intracellular clathrin-coated vesicle (1,2). Clathrin is the most abundant protein in these vesicles and is present as a basic assembly unit called a triskelion. Each clathrin triskelion is composed of three clathrin heavy chains and three clathrin light chains. Clathrin heavy chain proteins are composed of several functional domains, including a carboxy-terminal region that permits interaction with other heavy chain proteins within a triskelion, and a globular amino-terminal region that associates with other vesicle proteins (2). Adaptor proteins, such as AP2, epsin and EPS15, are responsible for the recruitment of vesicle proteins to sites of pit formation and the assembly of the clathrin-coated vesicle. Following vesicle invagination, the GTPase dynamin constricts the neck of the nascent vesicle to complete formation of the free, cytosolic vesicle (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Proteins in the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex are integral membrane proteins involved in vesicle transport and membrane fusion by pairing of vesicular SNAREs (v-SNAREs) with cognate target SNAREs (t-SNAREs) (reviewed in 1,2). Vesicle associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP3), also known as cellubrevin, has a broad tissue distribution and localizes to endosomal compartments (3). VAMP3 interacts with the t-SNAREs syntaxin1, syntaxin4, SNAP23, and SNAP25 (4,5). Research studies indicate that VAMP3 is involved in transferrin receptor recycling to the plasma membrane (6) and in T-cell receptor recycling to immunological synapses (7). Inhibition of VAMP3 with tetanus toxin impairs membrane trafficking during cell migration (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Dynamin is a family of large GTPases that has been implicated in the formation of vesicles of both the endocytotic and secretory processes (1). Dynamin plays an important role in the internalization of cell surface receptors, a process that attenuates the response to extracellular signals. It has been illustrated that dynamin interacts with signaling proteins such as Src, PLCγ, PKC and G-proteins. PKC and Src phosphorylate dynamin, and its phosphorylation may regulate the endocytosis of cell surface receptors (2,3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ack1 and Ack2 (activated cdc42-associated kinase 1 and 2) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that consist of a tyrosine kinase core, an SH3 domain, a cdc42/Rac-binding (CRIB) domain, a Ralt homology region and a proline-rich region (1,2). Ack1 and 2 are the only two tyrosine kinases known to interact with cdc42. Both Acks are activated by growth factors including EGF and PDGF, as well as by activated integrins through cell adhesion, and may serve to link receptor tyrosine kinase or G protein-coupled receptor signaling with cdc42. Acks may regulate cell growth, morphology and motility (3,4). Recent findings indicate that Ack1 may play a role in prostate tumorigenesis, making it a potential drug target for this type of cancer (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: OCRL1 is an inositol 5-phosphatase that selectively dephosphorylates the 5 position of the inositol ring. Its substrates include phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (1). Research studies indicate that mutations in OCRL1 are linked to Oculocerebrorenal syndrome or Lowe syndrome, an X-linked disorder distinguished by mental retardation and congenital cataracts, as well as Dent's disease (2,3). OCRL1 interacts with several endocytic proteins, including clathrin, AP-2, and RabGTPases (4-7). OCRL1 is localized to the Golgi complex, endosomes, and late stage clathrin-coated pits (6,8). OCRL1 controls early endosome function (8), regulating membrane traffic from endosomes to the Golgi. It is also involved in cytokinesis (9) and cilia assembly (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Rab35 belongs to the small GTPase superfamily. By interacting with its specific GEF or GAP, Rab35 regulates cargo-specific endocytosis at the vesicle recycling step or mediates exocytosis at the exosome docking/tethering step (1-4). During cytokinesis, Rab35 interacts with OCRL phosphatase and is essential for maintaining intercellular bridge stability and abscission by controlling the concentration of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and SEPT2 localization at the intercellular bridge (5,6). Rab35 also plays a role in actin assembly and the recruitment of Cdc42 and Rac1 to the site of filopodium by its direct interaction with actin-bundling protein fascin and actin-binding protein connecdenn 3 (7-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 ( LRP1) is a type I transmembrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of various ligands (1). LRP1 plays important roles in lipid homeostasis, signaling transduction, embryonic development, and glucose metabolism (2-6). In addition, LRP1 regulates APP processing and facilitates the clearance of beta-amyloid (7-9). This finding makes LRP1 a potential therapeutic target for Alzheimer’s disease. LRP1 preprotein is proteolytically processed by furin to generate a 515 kDa extracellular α subunit and a membrane-anchored 85 kDa β subunit, which together form the mature receptor (10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Adaptor associated kinase 1 (AAK1) is a member of the Ark1/Prk1 family of serine/threonine kinases (1). AAK1 is enriched in synaptosomal preparations and modulates clathrin-dependent endocytosis, a process that is important in synaptic vesicle recycling and receptor-mediated endocytosis. AAK1, together with clathrin, and clathrin-adaptor protein, AP-2, forms a signaling complex at the cell membrane. AAK1-dependent phosphorylation of the mu-2 subunit of AP-2 enhances efficiency of endocytosis (2, 3). AAK1 is known to promote neurogulin/ErbB4 internalization to regulate neurotrophic signaling. Inhibition of AAK1 activity promotes cell surface expression of neuregulin/Erb4, cell-bound neurotrophic factors that is implicated in brain development and synaptic plasticity (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Huntington's Disease (HD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by psychiatric, cognitive, and motor dysfunction. Neuropathology of HD involves specific neuronal subpopulations: GABA-ergic neurons of the striatum and neurons within the cerebral cortex selectively degenerate (1,2). The genetic analysis of HD has been the flagship study of inherited neurological diseases from initial chromosomal localization to identification of the gene.Huntingtin is a large (340-350 kD) cytosolic protein that may be involved in a number of cellular functions such as transcription, gastrulation, neurogenesis, neurotransmission, axonal transport, neural positioning, and apoptosis (2,3). The HD gene from unaffected individuals contains between 6 and 34 CAG trinucleotide repeats, with expansion beyond this range causing the onset of disease symptoms. A strong inverse correlation exists between the age of onset in patients and the number of huntingtin gene CAG repeats encoding a stretch of polyglutamine peptides (1,2). The huntingtin protein undergoes numerous post-translational modifications including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, palmitoylation, and cleavage (2). Phosphorylation of Ser421 by Akt can partially counteract the toxicity that results from the expanded polyglutamine tract. Varying Akt expression in the brain correlates with regional differences in huntingtin protein phosphorylation; this pattern inversely correlates with the regions that are most affected by degeneration in diseased brain (2). A key step in the disease is the proteolytic cleavage of huntingtin protein into amino-terminal fragments that contain expanded glutamine repeats and translocate into the nucleus. Caspase mediated cleavage of huntingtin at Asp513 is associated with increased polyglutamine aggregate formation and toxicity. Phosphorylation of Ser434 by CDK5 protects against cleavage (2,3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: BAP31 (B-cell receptor-association protein 31) is a transmembrane protein associated with the endplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-Golgi intermediates and has been implicated in protein trafficking and apoptosis (1,2). During apoptosis Bap31 is cleaved by caspase-8 at two carboxy-terminal sites which can then direct apoptotic signals between the ER and mitochondria (2-4). Association of BAP31 with the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 or Bcl-xL could function to regulate this ER-mitochondrial pathway (2,5). Several studies have shown that BAP31 can control the trafficking of select proteins between the ER and Golgi apparatus and can affect the transport of proteins to the cell surface (6-10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Dishevelled (Dsh) proteins are important intermediates of Wnt signaling pathways. Dsh inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β promoting β-catenin stabilization. Dsh proteins also participate in the planar cell polarity pathway by acting through JNK (1,2). There are three Dsh homologs, Dvl1, Dvl2 and Dvl3 in mammals. Upon treatment with Wnt proteins, Dvls become hyperphosphorylated (3) and accumulate in the nucleus (4). Dvl proteins also associate with actin fibers and cytoplasmic vesicular membranes (5) and mediate endocytosis of the Fzd receptor after Wnt protein stimulation (6). Overexpression of Dvl has been reported in certain cancers (7,8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Numb contains an amino-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain and carboxy-terminal endocytic binding motifs for α-adaptin and EH (Eps15 homology) domain-containing proteins, indicating a role in endocytosis (1,2). There are four mammalian Numb splicing isoforms that are differentially expressed and may have distinct functions (3-5). Numb acts as a negative regulator of Notch signaling by promoting ubiquitination and degradation of Notch (6). The protein is asymmetrically segregated into one daughter cell during cell division, producing two daughter cells with different responses to Notch signaling and different cell fates (7,8). The localization of Numb can also be regulated by G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and PKC signaling (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Autophagy is a catabolic process for the autophagosomic-lysosomal degradation of bulk cytoplasmic contents (1,2). It is generally activated by conditions of nutrient deprivation but is also associated with a number of physiological processes including development, differentiation, neurodegeneration, infection, and cancer (3). The molecular machinery of autophagy was largely discovered in yeast and is directed by a number of autophagy-related (Atg) genes.Vacuolar trafficking and autophagy are controlled by the class III type phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) Vps34, which generates phosphoinositide-3-phosphate (PtdIns3P) (4,5). Atg18 and Atg21 are two related WD-repeat proteins that bind PtdIns3P via a conserved Phe-Arg-Arg-Gly motif (6,7). It has been shown that Atg18 binds to Atg2 and that this complex is directed to vacuolar membranes by its interaction with PtdIns3P (8). Human orthologs of Atg18 and Atg21 were identified as members of the WD-repeat protein Interacting with Phosphoinositides (WIPI) family (9-11). WIPI1 (also called WIPI49) and WIPI2 have been shown to translocate from several vacuolar compartments to LC3-positive autophagosomes during autophagy; this translocation may be used as an autophagy marker (12).