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Polyclonal Antibody Flow Cytometry Regulation of Signal Transduction

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: AML1 (also known as Runx1, CBFA2, and PEBP2αB) is a member of the core binding factor (CBF) family of transcription factors (1,2). It is required for normal development of all hematopoietic lineages (3-5). AML1 forms a heterodimeric DNA binding complex with its partner protein CBFβ and regulates the expression of cellular genes by binding to promoter and enhancer elements. AML1 is commonly translocated in hematopoietic cancers: chromosomal translocations include t(8;21) AML1-ETO, t(12;21) TEL-AML, and t(8;21) AML-M2 (6). Phosphorylation of AML1 on several potential serine and threonine sites, including Ser249, is thought to occur in an Erk-dependent manner (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 1 (SHIP1) is a hematopoietic phosphatase that hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate to phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (1). SHIP1 is a cytosolic phosphatase with an SH2 domain in its amino terminus and two NPXY Shc binding motifs in its carboxy terminus (1,2). Upon receptor cross-linking, SHIP is first recruited to the membrane junction through binding of its SH2 domain to the phospho-tyrosine in the ITIM motif (2), followed by tyrosine phosphorylation on the NPXY motif (2). The membrane relocalization and phosphorylation on the NPXY motif is essential for the regulatory function of SHIP1 (3-5). Its effect on calcium flux, cell survival, growth, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis is mediated through the PI3K and Akt pathways (3-5). Tyr1021 is located in one of the NPXY motifs in SHIP1, and its phosphorylation is important for SHIP1 function (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Chicken, D. melanogaster, Dog, Guinea Pig, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Dog, Hamster, Human, Mouse, Pig, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate 4-kinases (PIP4K) synthesize phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2), a key precursor in phosphoinositide signaling that directly modulates the activity of signaling proteins and cellular processes. There are two subfamilies of PIP kinases, type I and II, that generate PtdIns(4,5)P2 from distinct substrate pools. PIP4 type I kinases use PtdIns5P as a substrate, whereas PIP5 type II kinases use PtdIns4P (1,2). In mammalian cells, three isoforms of each PIP4K and PIP5K subfamily, encoded by distinct genes, have been characterized (3-7). All PIP kinases are stimulated by phosphatidic acid, extensively regulated by ARF and Rho GTPases, and inhibited by protein kinase A and PI-stimulated autophosphorylation (8).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CrkL, a 39 kDa adaptor protein, has a key regulatory role in hematopoietic cells. CrkL has one SH2 and two SH3 domains, with 60% homology to CrkII (1). The amino-terminal SH3 domain of CrkL binds proteins such as C3G, SOS, PI3K, c-Abl and BCR/Abl. The SH2 domain of CrkL can bind to tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins such as Cbl, HEF1, CAS and paxillin (2,3). CrkL is involved in various signaling cascades initiated by different cytokines and growth factors. The biological outcomes of the Crk-activated signal transduction include the modulation of cell adhesion, cell migration and immune cell responses (4). CrkL is a prominent substrate of the BCR/Abl oncoprotein in chronic myelogenous leukemia and binds to both BCR/Abl and c-Abl (5). CrkL is prominently and constitutively tyrosine phosphorylated in CML neutrophils and is not phosphorylated in normal neutrophils. Moreover, stimulation of normal neutrophils with cytokines and agonists does not induce tyrosine phosphorylation of this protein (6), indicating that it may be a useful target for therapeutic intervention or as a disease marker. Tyr207 in CrkL is the BCR/Abl phosphorylation site (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) belongs to a family of RNA binding multiprotein complexes (hnRNP proteins) that facilitate pre-mRNA processing and transport of mRNA from the nucleus to cytoplasm (1-3). hnRNP K contains three unique structural motifs termed KH domains that bind poly(C) DNA and RNA sequences (4,5). Intricate architecture enables hnRNP K to facilitate mRNA biosynthesis (6), transcriptional regulation (7), and signal transduction. Research studies have shown that cytoplasmic hnRNP K expression is increased in oral squamous cell carcinoma and pancreatic cancer, and may be a potential prognostic factor (8,9). hnRNP K coordinates with p53 to regulate its target gene transcription in response to DNA damage. Proteasome degradation of hnRNP K is mediated by E3 ligase MDM2 (10). The interaction between hnRNP K and c-Src leads to hnRNP K phosphorylation, which allows for hnRNP K activation of silenced mRNA translation (11).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Cdc25 is a protein phosphatase responsible for dephosphorylating and activating cdc2, a crucial step in regulating the entry of all eukaryotic cells into mitosis (1). cdc25C is constitutively phosphorylated at Ser216 throughout interphase by c-TAK1, while phosphorylation at this site is DNA damage-dependent at the G2/M checkpoint (2). When phosphorylated at Ser216, cdc25C binds to members of the 14-3-3 family of proteins, sequestering cdc25C in the cytoplasm and thereby preventing premature mitosis (3). The checkpoint kinases Chk1 and Chk2 phosphorylate cdc25C at Ser216 in response to DNA damage (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Protein phosphatase 5 (PP5) is a member of the serine/threonine phosphatase family that also includes PP1, PP2A and PP2B. PP5 uniquely contains an amino-terminal regulatory domain with three tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs and a carboxy-terminal catalytic domain (1-3). Through the TPR domain, PP5 interacts with a number of proteins and has been reported to be involved in diverse signal transduction pathways, including glucocorticoid receptor signaling, p53-mediated growth arrest, oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis and the response to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage (4-8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Aurora A (AIK) is a cell cycle-regulated Ser/Thr protein kinase that is overexpressed in many tumor cell lines (1-3). Phosphorylation of Aurora A at Thr288 within the kinase activation loop results in a significant increase in its activity and may target the protein for proteasomal degradation during mitosis (4). The closely-related kinase Aurora B (AIM1) has been implicated in multiple mitotic events (5), and siRNA silencing of Aurora B expression results in reduced histone H3 phosphorylation, aberrant chromosome alignment/segregation, and altered survivin localization (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Nucleophosmin (NPM; also known as B23, numatrin or NO38) is an abundant phosphoprotein primarily found in nucleoli. It has been implicated in several distinct cellular functions, including assembly and transport of ribosomes, cytoplasmic/nuclear trafficking, regulation of DNA polymerase α activity, centrosome duplication and molecular chaperoning activities (1,2). The NPM gene is also known for its fusion with the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) receptor tyrosine kinase. The NPM portion contributes to transformation by providing a dimerization domain, which results in activation of the fused kinase (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the presence of Lewy bodies (intracellular inclusions) and by the loss of dopaminergic neurons. Research studies have shown that mutations in α-synuclein, Parkin, and DJ-1 are linked to PD (1). α-synuclein is a major component of the aggregates found in Lewy bodies. Parkin is involved in protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and investigators have shown that mutations in Parkin cause early onset of PD (1). Loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of PD, but DJ-1 is associated with multiple functions: it cooperates with Ras to increase cell transformation, it positively regulates transcription of the androgen receptor, and it may function as an indicator of oxidative stress (2-5). Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated functions are greatly impaired in DJ-1 (-/-) mice, resulting in reduced long-term depression (6).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunoprecipitation, Peptide ELISA (DELFIA), Western Blotting

Background: Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (p33CDK2) is an important component of the cell cycle machinery. Like p34cdc2, kinase activity is regulated by phosphorylation state as well as association with a cyclin subunit and a CDK inhibitor. Inhibitory phosphorylation occurs on Thr14 and Tyr15 (1). Inhibition of CDK2-cyclin complexes can also be attributed to association with p27 Kip1 and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (2). Activation of CDK2 complexes requires dephosphorylation of Thr14 and Tyr15 by cdc25 phosphatase and phosphorylation of Thr160 (3), which is mediated by CAK, a complex of CDK7 and cyclin H (4). CDK2/cyclin E kinase activity is important for the G1 to S transition and phosphorylation of the Rb protein. During S-phase, active CDK2/cyclin A complexes predominate and phosphorylate E2F and the active CDK2 complex persists in the nucleus throughout G2 (5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: LAT, a transmembrane adaptor protein expressed in T, NK and mast cells, is an important mediator for T cell receptor (TCR) signaling (1). Upon TCR engagement, activated Zap-70 phosphorylates LAT at multiple conserved tyrosine residues within SH2 binding motifs, exposing these motifs as the docking sites for downstream signaling targets (2,3). The phosphorylation of LAT at Tyr171 and Tyr191 enables the binding of Grb2, Gads/SLP-76, PLCγ1 and PI3 kinase through their SH2 domain and translocates them to the membrane. This process eventually leads to activation of the corresponding signaling pathways (1-4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1; also known as AOF2 and BHC110) is a nuclear amine oxidase homolog that acts as a histone demethylase and transcription cofactor (1). Gene activation and repression is specifically regulated by the methylation state of distinct histone protein lysine residues. For example, methylation of histone H3 at Lys4 facilitates transcriptional activation by coordinating the recruitment of BPTF, a component of the NURF chromatin remodeling complex, and WDR5, a component of multiple histone methyltransferase complexes (2,3). In contrast, methylation of histone H3 at Lys9 facilitates transcriptional repression by recruiting HP1 (4,5). LSD1 is a component of the CoREST transcriptional co-repressor complex that also contains CoREST, CtBP, HDAC1 and HDAC2. As part of this complex, LSD1 demethylates mono-methyl and di-methyl histone H3 at Lys4 through a FAD-dependent oxidation reaction to facilitate neuronal-specific gene repression in non-neuronal cells (1,6,7). In contrast, LSD1 associates with androgen receptor in human prostate cells to demethylate mono-methyl and di-methyl histone H3 at Lys9 and facilitate androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional activation (8). Therefore, depending on gene context LSD1 can function as either a transcriptional co-repressor or co-activator. LSD1 activity is inhibited by the amine oxidase inhibitors pargyline, deprenyl, clorgyline and tranylcypromine (8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Chk2 is the mammalian orthologue of the budding yeast Rad53 and fission yeast Cds1 checkpoint kinases (1-3). The amino-terminal domain of Chk2 contains a series of seven serine or threonine residues (Ser19, Thr26, Ser28, Ser33, Ser35, Ser50, and Thr68) each followed by glutamine (SQ or TQ motif). These are known to be preferred sites for phosphorylation by ATM/ATR kinases (4,5). After DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), UV irradiation, or hydroxyurea treatment, Thr68 and other sites in this region become phosphorylated by ATM/ATR (5-7). The SQ/TQ cluster domain, therefore, seems to have a regulatory function. Phosphorylation at Thr68 is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation step, which is attributable to autophosphorylation of Chk2 at residues Thr383 and Thr387 in the activation loop of the kinase domain (8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC) plays a significant role in transmembrane signaling. In response to extracellular stimuli such as hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters, PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate two secondary messengers: inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG) (1). At least four families of PLCs have been identified: PLCβ, PLCγ, PLCδ and PLCε. The PLCβ subfamily includes four members, PLCβ1-4. All four members of the subfamily are activated by α- or β-γ-subunits of the heterotrimeric G-proteins (2,3).Phosphorylation is one of the key mechanisms that regulates the activity of PLC. Phosphorylation of Ser1105 by PKA or PKC inhibits PLCβ3 activity (4,5). Ser537 of PLCβ3 is phosphorylated by CaMKII, and this phosphorylation may contribute to the basal activity of PLCβ3. PLCγ is activated by both receptor and nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (6).PLCγ forms a complex with EGF and PDGF receptors, which leads to the phosphorylation of PLCγ at Tyr771, 783 and 1248 (7). Phosphorylation by Syk at Tyr783 activates the enzymatic activity of PLCγ1 (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Western Blotting

Background: Keratins (cytokeratins) are intermediate filament proteins that are mainly expressed in epithelial cells. Keratin heterodimers composed of an acidic keratin (or type I keratin, keratins 9 to 23) and a basic keratin (or type II keratin, keratins 1 to 8) assemble to form filaments (1,2). Keratin isoforms demonstrate tissue- and differentiation-specific profiles that make them useful as research biomarkers (1). Research studies have shown that mutations in keratin genes are associated with skin disorders, liver and pancreatic diseases, and inflammatory intestinal diseases (3-6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CD19 is a 95 kDa coreceptor, which amplifies the signaling cascade in B cells (1). On the B cell surface, CD19 associates with CD21, CD81 and Leu-13 to exert its function. The cytoplasmic tail of CD19 has nine conserved tyrosine residues playing critical roles in CD19 mediated function by coupling signaling molecules to the receptor (1). After B cell receptor or CD19 ligation, Tyr531 and Tyr500 of CD19 are progressively phosphorylated. This phosphorylation enables the coupling of PI3 kinase and Src family tyrosine kinase to CD19 and activates the PI3K and Src signaling pathways (2,3). Coligation of B cell receptor and CD19 also promotes Tyr409 phosphorylation in CD19. The phosphorylation at these sites enables its binding to Vav and mediates elevated intracellular calcium response, as well as the JNK pathway (4,5).