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Polyclonal Antibody Immunofluorescence Immunocytochemistry Viral Reproduction

$303
200 µl
$717
600 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, C. elegans, D. melanogaster, Hamster, Human, Mink, Monkey, Mouse, Pig, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a widely conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in many cellular programs, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, motility, and death. The p44/42 MAPK (Erk1/2) signaling pathway can be activated in response to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines (1-3), and research investigators consider it an important target in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer (4). Upon stimulation, a sequential three-part protein kinase cascade is initiated, consisting of a MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK or MAP3K), a MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK or MAP2K), and a MAP kinase (MAPK). Multiple p44/42 MAP3Ks have been identified, including members of the Raf family, as well as Mos and Tpl2/COT. MEK1 and MEK2 are the primary MAPKKs in this pathway (5,6). MEK1 and MEK2 activate p44 and p42 through phosphorylation of activation loop residues Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr185/Tyr187, respectively. Several downstream targets of p44/42 have been identified, including p90RSK (7) and the transcription factor Elk-1 (8,9). p44/42 are negatively regulated by a family of dual-specificity (Thr/Tyr) MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs (10), along with MEK inhibitors, such as U0126 and PD98059.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, S. cerevisiae

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Frozen), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: One way that growth factors and mitogens effectively promote sustained cell growth and proliferation is by upregulating mRNA translation (1,2). Growth factors and mitogens induce the activation of p70 S6 kinase and the subsequent phosphorylation of the S6 ribosomal protein. Phosphorylation of S6 ribosomal protein correlates with an increase in translation of mRNA transcripts that contain an oligopyrimidine tract in their 5' untranslated regions (2). These particular mRNA transcripts (5'TOP) encode proteins involved in cell cycle progression, as well as ribosomal proteins and elongation factors necessary for translation (2,3). Important S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation sites include several residues (Ser235, Ser236, Ser240, and Ser244) located within a small, carboxy-terminal region of the S6 protein (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Ribosomal protein L7a is a highly conserved ribosome protein localized to 60S ribosomal subunit (1). The protein has distinct domains that target the newly synthesized polypeptide to nucleus and the nucleoli, the site of ribosome biosynthesis (2). Ribosomal protein L7a can also interact with RNA in vitro through two distinct RNA-binding domains in the protein (3). Taken together, nucleolar localization and the ability to bind RNA suggests that ribosomal protein L7a may act as an important component for ribosome biosynthesis and function.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Ribosomal protein S3 (rpS3) is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit and is involved in translation. HSP90 interacts with both the amino-terminus and carboxy-terminus of rpS3, preventing its ubiquitination and degradation and thereby retaining the integrity of the ribosome (1). rpS3 has also been shown to function as an endonuclease during DNA damage repair (2,3). Furthermore, overexpression of rpS3 sensitizes lymphocytic cells to cytokine-induced apoptosis, indicating a third role for rpS3 during apoptosis (4). The functions of rpS3 during DNA damage repair and apoptosis have been mapped to two distinct domains (4).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, VISA) contributes to innate immunity by triggering IRF-3 and NF-κB activation in response to viral infection, leading to the production of IFN-β (1). The MAVS protein contains an N-terminal CARD domain and a C-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane domain. The MAVS adaptor protein plays a critical and specific role in viral defenses (2). MAVS acts downstream of the RIG-I RNA helicase and viral RNA sensor, leading to the recruitment of IKKε, TRIF and TRAF6 (3,4). Some viruses have evolved strategies to circumvent these innate defenses by using proteases that cleave MAVS to prevent its mitochondrial localization (5,6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS, VISA) contributes to innate immunity by triggering IRF-3 and NF-κB activation in response to viral infection, leading to the production of IFN-β (1). The MAVS protein contains an N-terminal CARD domain and a C-terminal mitochondrial transmembrane domain. The MAVS adaptor protein plays a critical and specific role in viral defenses (2). MAVS acts downstream of the RIG-I RNA helicase and viral RNA sensor, leading to the recruitment of IKKε, TRIF and TRAF6 (3,4). Some viruses have evolved strategies to circumvent these innate defenses by using proteases that cleave MAVS to prevent its mitochondrial localization (5,6).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA cap structure to mediate the initiation of translation (1,2). eIF4E interacts with eIF4G, a scaffold protein that promotes assembly of eIF4E and eIF4A into the eIF4F complex (2). eIF4B is thought to assist the eIF4F complex in translation initiation. Upon activation by mitogenic and/or stress stimuli mediated by Erk and p38 MAPK, Mnk1 phosphorylates eIF4E at Ser209 in vivo (3,4). Two Erk and p38 MAPK phosphorylation sites in mouse Mnk1 (Thr197 and Thr202) are essential for Mnk1 kinase activity (3). The carboxy-terminal region of eIF4G also contains serum-stimulated phosphorylation sites, including Ser1108, Ser1148, and Ser1192 (5). Phosphorylation at these sites is blocked by the PI3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 and by the FRAP/mTOR inhibitor rapamycin.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of translation is an important biological event and a variety of factors contribute to this process. Members of the eIF4 translation initiation factor family bind to the 5' m7GTP mRNA cap and unwind the mRNA secondary structure (1,2). The amino-terminal portion of eIF4G physically associates with eIF4E to stimulate the binding of eIF4E to the mRNA cap structure (3). eIF4G also interacts with eIF3 and eIF4A and serves as an adaptor molecule in the eIF4 complex (4). Moreover, eIF4G plays a role in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation of translation (5,6). The eIF4G family includes eIF4G1 (eIF4GI), eIF4G2 (p97, DAP5 or NAT1), and eIF4G3 (eIF4GII) (7). These factors share a homologous sequence that provides for interaction with initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A. Both eIF4G1 and eIF4G3 are involved in cap-dependent translation, while eIF4G2 plays a role in IRES-mediated translation of some genes during cell stress (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The initiation of translation is an important biological event and a variety of factors contribute to this process. Members of the eIF4 translation initiation factor family bind to the 5' m7GTP mRNA cap and unwind the mRNA secondary structure (1,2). The amino-terminal portion of eIF4G physically associates with eIF4E to stimulate the binding of eIF4E to the mRNA cap structure (3). eIF4G also interacts with eIF3 and eIF4A and serves as an adaptor molecule in the eIF4 complex (4). Moreover, eIF4G plays a role in internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-mediated initiation of translation (5,6). The eIF4G family includes eIF4G1 (eIF4GI), eIF4G2 (p97, DAP5 or NAT1), and eIF4G3 (eIF4GII) (7). These factors share a homologous sequence that provides for interaction with initiation factors eIF3 and eIF4A. Both eIF4G1 and eIF4G3 are involved in cap-dependent translation, while eIF4G2 plays a role in IRES-mediated translation of some genes during cell stress (7,8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Neural precursor expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4 (NEDD4) was originally identified as a gene that is highly expressed in the early mouse embryonic central nervous system (1). Subsequently, a family of NEDD4-like proteins have been defined that includes seven members in humans (2). NEDD4 and NEDD4-like (NEDD4L) proteins contain multiple functional domains including a calcium-dependent phospholipid and membrane binding domain (C2 domain), two to four protein binding domains (WW domains), and an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase domain (HECT domain). NEDD4 and NEDD4L have been shown to downregulate both neuronal voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaVs) and epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) in response to increased intracellular Na+ concentrations (3,4). The WW domains of NEDD4 bind to PY motifs (amino acid sequence PPXY) found in multiple NaV and ENaC proteins; ubiquitination of these proteins is mediated by the HECT domain of NEDD4 and results in their internalization and removal from the plasma membrane. Research studies have shown that mutation of the PY motifs in ENaC proteins is associated with Liddle's syndrome, an autosomal dominant form of hypertension (5). In addition to targeting sodium channels, NEDD4L has also been shown to negatively regulate TGF-β signaling by targeting Smad2 for degradation (6). Mouse and human NEDD4 are rapidly cleaved by caspase proteins during apoptosis, although the significance of this cleavage is not clear (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The Stat1 transcription factor is activated in response to a large number of ligands (1) and is essential for responsiveness to IFN-α and IFN-γ (2,3). Phosphorylation of Stat1 at Tyr701 induces Stat1 dimerization, nuclear translocation, and DNA binding (4). Stat1 protein exists as a pair of isoforms, Stat1α (91 kDa) and the splice variant Stat1β (84 kDa). In most cells, both isoforms are activated by IFN-α, but only Stat1α is activated by IFN-γ. The inappropriate activation of Stat1 occurs in many tumors (5). In addition to tyrosine phosphorylation, Stat1 is also phosphorylated at Ser727 through a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-dependent pathway in response to IFN-α and other cellular stresses (6). Serine phosphorylation may be required for the maximal induction of Stat1-mediated gene activation.

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2 and then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). Combinatorial interactions of different E2 and E3 proteins result in substrate specificity (4). Recent data suggests that activated E2 associates transiently with E3, and the dissociation is a critical step for ubiquitination (5). S phase kinase-associated protein 1 (Skp1) is a critical scaffold protein of the Skp1/CUL1/F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligase protein complex. Various F-box proteins (e.g., β-TrCP, Skp2) mediate an interaction with Skp1, via their defining and conserved domain of 40 amino acids, and with substrates to be ubiquitinated (e.g., β-catenin, p27) (4).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Modulation of chromatin structure plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription and replication of the eukaryotic genome. The nucleosome, made up of four core histone proteins (H2A, H2B, H3, and H4), is the primary building block of chromatin. In addition to the growing number of post-translational histone modifications regulating chromatin structure, cells can also exchange canonical histones with variant histones that can directly or indirectly modulate chromatin structure (1). CENP-A, also known as the chromatin-associated protein CSE4 (capping-enzyme suppressor 4-p), is an essential histone H3 variant that replaces canonical histone H3 in centromeric heterochromatin (2). The greatest divergence between CENP-A and canonical histone H3 occurs in the amino-terminal tail of the protein, which binds linker DNA between nucleosomes and facilitates proper folding of centromeric heterochromatin (3). The amino-terminal tail of CENP-A is also required for recruitment of other centromeric proteins (CENP-C, hSMC1, hZW10), proper kinetochore assembly and chromosome segregation during mitosis (4). Additional sequence divergence in the histone fold domain is responsible for correct targeting of CENP-A to the centromere (5). Many of the functions of CENP-A are regulated by phosphorylation (6,7). Aurora A-dependent phosphorylation of CENP-A on Ser7 during prophase is required for proper targeting of Aurora B to the inner centromere in prometaphase, proper kinetochore/microtubule attachment and proper alignment of chromosomes during mitosis (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that are critical for cellular differentiation, terminal function, and inflammatory response (1). Six members of the family have been characterized (C/EBPα, β, δ, γ, ε, and ζ) and are distributed in a variety of tissues (1). Translation from alternative start codons results in two isoforms of C/EBPα (p42 and p30), which are both strong transcriptional activators (2). It has been reported that insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I stimulate the dephosphorylation of C/EBPα, which may play a key role in insulin-induced repression of GLUT4 transcription (3). Phosphorylation of C/EBPα at Thr222, Thr226, and Ser230 by GSK-3 seems to be required for adipogenesis (4).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Silent Information Regulator (SIR2) family of genes is a highly conserved group of genes that encode nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein deacetylases, also known as class III histone deacetylases. The first discovered and best characterized of these genes is Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIR2, which is involved in silencing of mating type loci, telomere maintenance, DNA damage response, and cell aging (1). SirT1, the mammalian ortholog of Sir2, is a nuclear protein implicated in the regulation of many cellular processes, including apoptosis, cellular senescence, endocrine signaling, glucose homeostasis, aging, and longevity. Targets of SirT1 include acetylated p53 (2,3), p300 (4), Ku70 (5), forkhead (FoxO) transcription factors (5,6), PPARγ (7), and the PPARγ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) protein (8). Deacetylation of p53 and FoxO transcription factors represses apoptosis and increases cell survival (2,3,5,6). Deacetylation of PPARγ and PGC-1α regulates the gluconeogenic/glycolytic pathways in the liver and fat mobilization in white adipocytes in response to fasting (7,8). SirT1 deacetylase activity is inhibited by nicotinamide and activated by resveratrol. In addition, SirT1 activity may be regulated by phosphorylation, as it is phosphorylated at Ser27 and Ser47 in vivo; however, the function of these phosphorylation sites has not yet been determined (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 20S proteasome is the major proteolytic enzyme complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. PA700, PA28, and PA200 are three major protein complexes that function as activators of the 20S proteasome. There are three evolutionarily conserved subunits of PA28: PA28α (PSME1), PA28β (PSME2), and PA28γ (PSME3) (1,2). PA28α and PA28β form a heteroheptameric complex and function by binding to the 20S complex at its opening site(s). The PA28α/β complex is present throughout the cell and participates in MHC class I antigen presentation by promoting the generation of antigenic peptides from foreign proteins (2). PA28γ exists in the form of a homoheptamer and is mainly located in the nucleus. The PA28γ complex exerts its function by binding and guiding specific nuclear target proteins to the 20S proteasome for further degradation (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The 20S proteasome is the major proteolytic enzyme complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. PA700, PA28, and PA200 are three major protein complexes that function as activators of the 20S proteasome. There are three evolutionarily conserved subunits of PA28: PA28α (PSME1), PA28β (PSME2), and PA28γ (PSME3) (1,2). PA28α and PA28β form a heteroheptameric complex and function by binding to the 20S complex at its opening site(s). The PA28α/β complex is present throughout the cell and participates in MHC class I antigen presentation by promoting the generation of antigenic peptides from foreign proteins (2). PA28γ exists in the form of a homoheptamer and is mainly located in the nucleus. The PA28γ complex exerts its function by binding and guiding specific nuclear target proteins to the 20S proteasome for further degradation (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: A variety of factors contribute to the initiation of translation. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4H (eIF4H) was purified to near homogeneity from rabbit reticulocyte lysate and shown to stimulate translation in an assay deficient in eIF4F and eIF4B (1). eIF4H induces the RNA-dependent ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the initiation factors eIF4A and eIF4B (1,2). eIF4H was further shown to stimulate the initial rate and extent of eIF4A-mediated mRNA secondary structure unwinding (3). Interaction between eIF4H and the herpes simplex virus shutoff protein (Vhs) appears to be important for Vhs-mediated degradation of mRNA (4). Deletion of a large region of chromosome 7, including the corresponding eIF4H gene, results in Williams-Beuren Syndrome (WBS), an autosomal dominant disorder that can present with cardiovascular problems, mental retardation and distinctive facial features (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The 20S proteasome is the major proteolytic enzyme complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. It consists of four stacked rings, each with seven distinct subunits. The two outer layers are identical rings composed of α subunits (called PSMAs), and the two inner layers are identical rings composed of β subunits. While the catalytic sites are located on the β rings (1-3), the α subunits are important for assembly and as binding sites for regulatory proteins (4). Seven different α and ten different β proteasome genes have been identified in mammals (5). PA700, PA28, and PA200 are three major protein complexes that function as activators of the 20S proteasome. PA700 binds polyubiquitin with high affinity and associates with the 20S proteasome to form the 26S proteasome, which preferentially degrades poly-ubiquitinated proteins (1-3). The proteasome has a broad substrate spectrum that includes cell cycle regulators, signaling molecules, tumor suppressors, and transcription factors. By controlling the degradation of these intracellular proteins, the proteasome functions in cell cycle regulation, cancer development, immune responses, protein folding, and disease progression (6-9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Western Blotting

Background: The 20S proteasome is the major proteolytic enzyme complex involved in intracellular protein degradation. It consists of four stacked rings, each with seven distinct subunits. The two outer layers are identical rings composed of α subunits (called PSMAs), and the two inner layers are identical rings composed of β subunits. While the catalytic sites are located on the β rings (1-3), the α subunits are important for assembly and as binding sites for regulatory proteins (4). Seven different α and ten different β proteasome genes have been identified in mammals (5). PA700, PA28, and PA200 are three major protein complexes that function as activators of the 20S proteasome. PA700 binds polyubiquitin with high affinity and associates with the 20S proteasome to form the 26S proteasome, which preferentially degrades poly-ubiquitinated proteins (1-3). The proteasome has a broad substrate spectrum that includes cell cycle regulators, signaling molecules, tumor suppressors, and transcription factors. By controlling the degradation of these intracellular proteins, the proteasome functions in cell cycle regulation, cancer development, immune responses, protein folding, and disease progression (6-9).