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Polyclonal Antibody Immunohistochemistry Paraffin Cell Division

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The p53 tumor suppressor protein plays a major role in cellular response to DNA damage and other genomic aberrations. Activation of p53 can lead to either cell cycle arrest and DNA repair or apoptosis (1). In addition to p53, mammalian cells contain two p53 family members, p63 and p73, which are similar to p53 in both structure and function (2). While p63 can induce p53-responsive genes and apoptosis, mutation of p63 rarely results in tumors (2). Research investigators frequently observe amplification of the p63 gene in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung, head and neck (2,3). The p63 gene contains an alternative transcription initiation site that yields a truncated ΔNp63 lacking the transactivation domain, and alternative splicing at the carboxy-terminus yields the α, β, and γ isoforms (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, D. melanogaster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB1) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved, multifunctional Y-box proteins that bind single-stranded DNA and RNA and function as regulators of transcription, RNA metabolism, and protein synthesis (1). YB1 binds to Y-box sequences (TAACC) found in multiple gene promoters and can positively or negatively regulate transcription. YB1 activates genes associated with proliferation and cancer, such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and the multi-drug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene (2-4). YB1 represses genes associated with cell death, including the Fas cell death-associated receptor and the p53 tumor suppressor gene (5-7). It also interacts with the RNA-splicing factor SRp30c and stabilizes interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA upon induction of T lymphocytes by IL-2 (8,9). The majority of YB1 protein localizes to the cytoplasm, with a minor pool found in the nucleus; however, nuclear localization appears to be critical for its role in promoting proliferation. Nuclear translocation is cell cycle regulated, with YB1 protein accumulating in the nucleus during G1/S phase (2). In addition, nuclear translocation is induced in response to extracellular stimuli such as hyperthermia and UV irradiation, or treatment of cells with thrombin, interferons, or insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) (2,10). Treatment of the MCF7 breast cancer cell line with IGF-I results in Akt-mediated phosphorylation of YB1 at Ser102, which is required for nuclear translocation of YB1 and its ability to promote anchorage-independent growth (10). Research studies have shown that YB1 is overexpressed in many malignant tissues, including breast cancer, non-small cell lung carcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinomas, human osteosarcomas, colorectal carcinomas, and malignant melanomas. Investigators have shown that nuclear YB1 expression correlates with high levels of proliferation, drug resistance, and poor tumor prognosis (2,7,10).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: The cytoskeleton consists of three types of cytosolic fibers: microtubules, microfilaments (actin filaments), and intermediate filaments. Globular tubulin subunits comprise the microtubule building block, with α/β-tubulin heterodimers forming the tubulin subunit common to all eukaryotic cells. γ-tubulin is required to nucleate polymerization of tubulin subunits to form microtubule polymers. Many cell movements are mediated by microtubule action, including the beating of cilia and flagella, cytoplasmic transport of membrane vesicles, chromosome alignment during meiosis/mitosis, and nerve-cell axon migration. These movements result from competitive microtubule polymerization and depolymerization or through the actions of microtubule motor proteins (1).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Type 1 protein phosphatase (PP1), a serine/threonine phosphatase, is highly conserved in eukaryotic cells. Four isoforms of PP1 have been characterized: PP1α, PP1δ, PP1γ1 and PP1γ2 (1). Involvement in cell cycle regulation is one of the biological functions of PP1 (1). It has been illustrated that PP1 dephosphorylates Rb and cdc25 during mitosis (2,3). A cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation at Thr320 of PP1α by cdc2 kinase inhibits PP1α activity (4).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Chk2 is the mammalian orthologue of the budding yeast Rad53 and fission yeast Cds1 checkpoint kinases (1-3). The amino-terminal domain of Chk2 contains a series of seven serine or threonine residues (Ser19, Thr26, Ser28, Ser33, Ser35, Ser50, and Thr68) each followed by glutamine (SQ or TQ motif). These are known to be preferred sites for phosphorylation by ATM/ATR kinases (4,5). After DNA damage by ionizing radiation (IR), UV irradiation, or hydroxyurea treatment, Thr68 and other sites in this region become phosphorylated by ATM/ATR (5-7). The SQ/TQ cluster domain, therefore, seems to have a regulatory function. Phosphorylation at Thr68 is a prerequisite for the subsequent activation step, which is attributable to autophosphorylation of Chk2 at residues Thr383 and Thr387 in the activation loop of the kinase domain (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Oct-4 (POU5F1) is a transcription factor highly expressed in undifferentiated embryonic stem cells and embryonic germ cells (1). A network of key factors that includes Oct-4, Nanog, and Sox2 is necessary for the maintenance of pluripotent potential, and downregulation of Oct-4 has been shown to trigger cell differentiation (2,3). Research studies have demonstrated that Oct-4 is a useful germ cell tumor marker (4). Oct-4 exists as two splice variants, Oct-4A and Oct-4B (5). Recent studies have suggested that the Oct-4A isoform has the ability to confer and sustain pluripotency, while Oct-4B may exist in some somatic, non-pluripotent cells (6,7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Cyclin E1 and cyclin E2 can associate with and activate CDK2 (1). Upon DNA damage, upregulation/activation of the CDK inhibitors p21 Waf1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1 prevent cyclin E/CDK2 activation, resulting in G1/S arrest. When conditions are favorable for cell cycle progression, cyclin D/CDK4/6 phosphorylates Rb and is thought to reduce the activity of p21 Waf1/Cip1 and p27 Kip1, allowing subsequent activation of cyclin E/CDK2 (1,2). Cyclin E/CDK2 further phosphorylates Rb to allow progression into S-phase, where cyclin E/CDK2 is thought to phosphorylate and activate multiple proteins involved in DNA synthesis (2,3). Turnover of cyclin E is largely controlled by phosphorylation that results in SCFFbw7-mediated ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation (4,5). Cyclin E1 is phosphorylated at multiple sites in vivo including Thr62, Ser88, Ser72, Thr380 and Ser384, and is controlled by at least two kinases, CDK2 and GSK-3 (6,7).