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Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Post-Embryonic Organ Morphogenesis

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bim/Bod is a pro-apoptotic protein belonging to the BH3-only group of Bcl-2 family members including Bad, Bid, Bik, Hrk, and Noxa that contain a BH3 domain but lack other conserved BH1 or BH2 domains (1,2). Bim induces apoptosis by binding to and antagonizing anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Interactions have been observed with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Bcl-w, Bfl-1, and BHRF-1 (1,2). Bim functions in regulating apoptosis associated with thymocyte negative selection and following growth factor withdrawal, during which Bim expression is elevated (3-6). Three major isoforms of Bim are generated by alternative splicing: BimEL, BimL, and BimS (1). The shortest form, BimS, is the most cytotoxic and is generally only transiently expressed during apoptosis. The BimEL and BimL isoforms may be sequestered to the dynein motor complex through an interaction with the dynein light chain and released from this complex during apoptosis (7). Apoptotic activity of these longer isoforms may be regulated by phosphorylation (8,9). Environmental stress triggers Bim phosphorylation by JNK and results in its dissociation from the dynein complex and increased apoptotic activity.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bim/Bod is a pro-apoptotic protein belonging to the BH3-only group of Bcl-2 family members including Bad, Bid, Bik, Hrk, and Noxa that contain a BH3 domain but lack other conserved BH1 or BH2 domains (1,2). Bim induces apoptosis by binding to and antagonizing anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family. Interactions have been observed with Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Mcl-1, Bcl-w, Bfl-1, and BHRF-1 (1,2). Bim functions in regulating apoptosis associated with thymocyte negative selection and following growth factor withdrawal, during which Bim expression is elevated (3-6). Three major isoforms of Bim are generated by alternative splicing: BimEL, BimL, and BimS (1). The shortest form, BimS, is the most cytotoxic and is generally only transiently expressed during apoptosis. The BimEL and BimL isoforms may be sequestered to the dynein motor complex through an interaction with the dynein light chain and released from this complex during apoptosis (7). Apoptotic activity of these longer isoforms may be regulated by phosphorylation (8,9). Environmental stress triggers Bim phosphorylation by JNK and results in its dissociation from the dynein complex and increased apoptotic activity.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Presenilin 1 and presenilin 2 are transmembrane proteins belonging to the presenilin family. Mutation of presenilin genes has been linked to early onset of Alzheimer disease, probably due to presenilin's associated γ-secretase activity for amyloid-β protein processing (1,2). Endogenous presenilin mainly exists in a heterodimeric complex formed from the endoproteolytically processed amino-terminal (34 kDa) and carboxy-terminal (~20, 22, 23 kDa) fragments (CTF) (2,3).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Dicer is a member of the RNase III family that specifically cleaves double-stranded RNAs to generate microRNAs (miRNAs) (1). After long primary transcript pri-miRNAs are processed to stem-looped pre-miRNAs by Drosha (2), pre-miRNAs are transported to the cytoplasm and further processed by Dicer to produce 22-nucleotide mature miRNAs (3). The mature miRNA then becomes a part of the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) and can bind to the 3' UTR of the target mRNA (3).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Frizzled (Fzd) belongs to the seven transmembrane-spanning G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily (1). Fzds have a large extracellular N-terminal region containing a cysteine-rich domain (CRD), which is involved in binding to Wnt proteins (1,2). The intracellular C-terminus binds to the PDZ domain of Dvl proteins, a major signaling component downstream of Fzd (3). Wnt proteins bind to Fzd and the co-receptors LRP5 or LPR6, and activate Wnt/β-catenin pathway through inhibiting phosphorylation of β-catenin by GSK3-β (4,5). In addition to this canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway, some Wnt proteins can also activate the Fzd/Ca2+ pathway and Fzd/PCP (planar cell polarity) pathway (6,7). The mammalian Fzd subfamily has 10 members (Fzd1 to Fzd10) and they may mediate signaling through different pathways (8). Some Fzds can also bind to other secreted proteins, like Norrin and R-Spondin (9-11).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bax is a key component for cellular induced apoptosis through mitochondrial stress (1). Upon apoptotic stimulation, Bax forms oligomers and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane (2). Through interactions with pore proteins on the mitochondrial membrane, Bax increases the membrane's permeability, which leads to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and initiation of the caspase activation pathway for apoptosis (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bax is a key component for cellular induced apoptosis through mitochondrial stress (1). Upon apoptotic stimulation, Bax forms oligomers and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane (2). Through interactions with pore proteins on the mitochondrial membrane, Bax increases the membrane's permeability, which leads to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and initiation of the caspase activation pathway for apoptosis (3,4).