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Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Unfolded Protein Response

Also showing Polyclonal Antibody Immunoprecipitation Response to Unfolded Protein

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GFAT1, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 1, is the rate-limiting enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (1). This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of fructose-6-phosphate and glutamine to glucosamine-6-phosphate and glutamate (2). The hexosamine biosynthesis pathway generates the building blocks for protein and lipid glycosylation (2). Furthermore, studies suggest that increased activity of this pathway is a contributing factor to hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance (1,2). GFAT1 is more active in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients (3). Transgenice mice overexpressing this enzyme in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue show an insulin resistance phenotype (4,5). GFAT2, an isoenzyme of GFAT1, was later identified (6, 7). Studies show that the regulation of GFAT2 is different from that of GFAT1, suggesting differential regulation of the hexosamine pathway in different tissues (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Wolfram syndrome protein (WFS1) is an 890 amino acid protein that contains a cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, followed by nine-transmembrane domains and a luminal C-terminal domain. WFS1 is predominantly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (1) and its expression is induced in response to ER stress, partially through transcriptional activation (2,3). Research studies have shown that mutations in the WFS1 gene lead to Wolfram syndrome, an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder defined by young-onset, non-immune, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and progressive optic atrophy (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), also known as CCL2, monocyte chemotactic activating factor (MCAF) or glioma-derived chemotactic factor-2 (GDCF-2), is the product of the human JE gene and a member of the family of C-C (or β) chemokines (1-4). The predicted molecular weight of MCP-1 protein is 11-13 kDa, but it may migrate at 20-30 kDa due to glycosylation. MCP-1 is secreted by a variety of cell types in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli and was originally described for its chemotactic activity on monocytes. This activity has led to studies demonstrating its role in diseases characterized by monocyte infiltrates such as psoriasis (5), rheumatoid arthritis (6) and atherosclerosis (7). MCP-1 may also contribute to tumor progression and angiogenesis (8). Signaling by MCP-1 is mediated by the G-protein coupled receptor CCR2 (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 is a well documented mechanism of downregulating protein synthesis under a variety of stress conditions. Kinases activated by viral infection (PKR), endoplasmic reticulum stress (PERK/PEK), amino acid deprivation (GCN2) and hemin deficiency (HRI) can phosphorylate the alpha subunit of eIF2 (1,2). GCN2 is also required for UV-light induced translation inhibition, and in vivo phosphorylation of murine GCN2 at Thr898 is induced by both UV irradiation and by leucine deprivation (3). UV-induced activation of NF-kappaB also requires GCN2, which may act simply by preventing translation of IkappaB-alpha to replace pools that have been ubiquitinated and degraded (4). Interestingly, proteasome inhibitors (MG132 and ALLN) activate the GCN2/eIF2alpha pathway, suggesting a pivotal role for this kinase in stress response and ubiquitin-mediated signaling (5). In vitro autophosphorylation of yeast GCN2 within its activation loop at Thr882 and Thr887 (Thr898 and Thr903 in mouse) has also been reported (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Activity of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 is regulated by T-loop phosphorylation, by the abundance of their cyclin partners (the D-type cyclins), and by association with CDK inhibitors of the Cip/Kip or INK family of proteins (1). The inactive ternary complex of cyclin D/CDK4 and p27 Kip1 requires extracellular mitogenic stimuli for the release and degradation of p27 concomitant with a rise in cyclin D levels to affect progression through the restriction point and Rb-dependent entry into S-phase (2). The active complex of cyclin D/CDK4 targets the retinoblastoma protein for phosphorylation, allowing the release of E2F transcription factors that activate G1/S-phase gene expression (3). Levels of cyclin D protein drop upon withdrawal of growth factors through downregulation of protein expression and phosphorylation-dependent degradation (4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Protein kinase R (PKR) is transcriptionally induced by interferon and activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). PKR inhibits translation initiation through phosphorylation of the α subunit of the initiation factor eIF2 (eIF2α) and also controls the activation of several transcription factors, such as NF-κB, p53, and the Stats. In addition, PKR mediates apoptosis induced by many different stimuli, such as LPS, TNF-α, viral infection, and serum starvation (1,2). Activation of PKR by dsRNA results in PKR dimerization and autophosphorylation of Thr446 and Thr451 in the activation loop. Substitution of threonine for alanine at position 451 completely inactivated PKR, while a mutant with a threonine to alanine substitution at position 446 was partially active (3). Research studies have implicated PKR activation in the pathologies of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Dog, Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR/gp78) is a putative seven transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptor that functions, in part, at the cell surface as a cytokine receptor for autocrine motility factor/phosphoglucose isomerase (AMF/PGI). AMFR is also localized to an intracellular mitochondria-associated smooth ER domain where it functions as an E3 ubiquitin ligase (1). AMFR function, as both a cytokine receptor and ubiquitin ligase, is linked to a variety of cellular signaling cascades associated with metastasis development and increased invasiveness. AMFR was initially proposed to be a RING-H2 E3 ubiquitin ligase after sequence analysis identified a catalytic RING finger and CUE motif, which are responsible for ubiquitin ligase activity and ubiquitin binding, respectively (2,3). Indeed, AMFR is a key component and amongst the best characterized ubiquitin ligases of the endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation (ERAD) machinery, a process involving recognition of misfolded proteins, ubiquitination, deglycosylation, retro-translocation to the cytosol, and targeting to the proteasome (4). Recent studies have shown that AMFR plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis via the sterol-mediated ubiquitination of HMG-CoA reductase and its cofactor Insig-1 (5,6). Furthermore, AMFR has been implicated in the degradation of apolipoprotein B100 (7). It was recently reported that AMFR degrades the metastasis suppressor KAI-1/CD-82, representing the first evidence that AMFR ubiquitin ligase activity is involved in metastasis development (8). Increased expression of AMFR correlates with a high incidence of recurrence and reduced survival in patients with bladder, colorectal, and gastric cancers (9-11).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bax is a key component for cellular induced apoptosis through mitochondrial stress (1). Upon apoptotic stimulation, Bax forms oligomers and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane (2). Through interactions with pore proteins on the mitochondrial membrane, Bax increases the membrane's permeability, which leads to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and initiation of the caspase activation pathway for apoptosis (3,4).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Bax is a key component for cellular induced apoptosis through mitochondrial stress (1). Upon apoptotic stimulation, Bax forms oligomers and translocates from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane (2). Through interactions with pore proteins on the mitochondrial membrane, Bax increases the membrane's permeability, which leads to the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, activation of caspase-9 and initiation of the caspase activation pathway for apoptosis (3,4).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CBP (CREB-binding protein) and p300 are highly conserved and functionally related transcriptional co-activators that associate with transcriptional regulators and signaling molecules, integrating multiple signal transduction pathways with the transcriptional machinery (1,2). CBP/p300 also contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, allowing them to acetylate histones and other proteins (2). Phosphorylation of p300 at Ser89 by PKC represses its transciptional acitivity, and phosphorylation at the same site by AMPK disrupts the association of p300 with nuclear receptors (3,4). Ser1834 phosphorylation of p300 by Akt disrupts its association with C/EBPβ (5). Growth factors induce phosphorylation of CBP at Ser437, which is required for CBP recruitment to the transcription complex (6). CaM kinase IV phosphorylates CBP at Ser302, which is required for CBP-dependent transcriptional activation in the CNS (7). The role of acetylation of CBP/p300 is of particular interest (2,8). Acetylation of p300 at Lys1499 has been demonstrated to enhance its HAT activity and affect a wide variety of signaling events (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HSP40 and HSP40-like proteins represent a large family of chaperone proteins that are homologous to E. coli DnaJ protein (1). These proteins are classified into three subtypes based on their structures. The common feature of the family is a conserved J domain, which is usually located at the amino terminus of proteins and responsible for their association with HSP70 (1,2). Human HSP40, also known as Hdj1, belongs to subtype II that contain a unique Gly/Phe-rich region (2). HSP40 family proteins bind unfolded proteins, prevent their aggregation, and then deliver them to HSP70 (2,3). Another major function of HSP40 is to stimulate ATPase activity of HSP70, which causes conformational change of the unfolded proteins (4,5). The HSP40-HSP70-unfolded protein complex further binds to co-chaperones Hip, Hop and HSP90 or components of the protein degradation machinery such as CHIP and BAG-1, which either leads to protein folding or degradation, respectively (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Bovine, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HSP70 and HSP90 are molecular chaperones expressed constitutively under normal conditions to maintain protein homeostasis and are induced upon environmental stress (1). Both HSP70 and HSP90 are able to interact with unfolded proteins to prevent irreversible aggregation and catalyze the refolding of their substrates in an ATP- and co-chaperone-dependent manner (1). HSP70 has a broad range of substrates including newly synthesized and denatured proteins, while HSP90 tends to have a more limited subset of substrates, most of which are signaling molecules. HSP70 and HSP90 often function collaboratively in a multi-chaperone system, which requires a minimal set of co-chaperones: HSP40, Hop, and p23 (2,3). The co-chaperones either regulate the intrinsic ATPase activity of the chaperones or recruit chaperones to specific substrates or subcellular compartments (1,4). When the ubiquitin ligase CHIP associates with the HSP70/HSP90 complex as a cofactor, the unfolded substrates are subjected to degradation by the proteasome (4). The biological functions of HSP70/HSP90 extend beyond their chaperone activity. They are essential for the maturation and inactivation of nuclear hormones and other signaling molecules (1,3). They also play a role in vesicle formation and protein trafficking (2).