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Polyclonal Antibody Transcription Factor Complex

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: CBP (CREB-binding protein) and p300 are highly conserved and functionally related transcriptional co-activators that associate with transcriptional regulators and signaling molecules, integrating multiple signal transduction pathways with the transcriptional machinery (1,2). CBP/p300 also contain histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity, allowing them to acetylate histones and other proteins (2). Phosphorylation of p300 at Ser89 by PKC represses its transciptional acitivity, and phosphorylation at the same site by AMPK disrupts the association of p300 with nuclear receptors (3,4). Ser1834 phosphorylation of p300 by Akt disrupts its association with C/EBPβ (5). Growth factors induce phosphorylation of CBP at Ser437, which is required for CBP recruitment to the transcription complex (6). CaM kinase IV phosphorylates CBP at Ser302, which is required for CBP-dependent transcriptional activation in the CNS (7). The role of acetylation of CBP/p300 is of particular interest (2,8). Acetylation of p300 at Lys1499 has been demonstrated to enhance its HAT activity and affect a wide variety of signaling events (9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The most well characterized nuclear receptor corepressors are SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors) and its close paralog NCoR1 (nuclear receptor corepressor) (1,2). NCoR1 functions to transcriptionally silence various unliganded, DNA bound non-steroidal nuclear receptors by serving as a large molecular scaffold that bridges the receptors with multiple chromatin remodeling factors that repress nuclear receptor-mediated gene transcription, in part, through deacetylation of core histones surrounding target promoters. Indeed, the N-terminal portion of NCoR1 possesses multiple distinct transcriptional repression domains (RDs) reponsible for the recruitment of additional components of the corepressor complex such as HDACs, mSin3, GPS2, and TBL1/TBLR1. In between the RDs lies a pair of potent repressor motifs known as SANT motifs (SWI3, ADA2, N-CoR, and TFIIIB), which recruit HDAC3 and histones to the repressor complex in order to enhance HDAC3 activity (3). The C-terminal portion of NCoR1 contains multiple nuclear receptor interaction domains (NDs), each of which contains a conserved CoRNR box (or L/I-X-X-I/V-I) motif that allow for binding to various unliganded nuclear hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone (THR) and retinoic acid (RAR) receptors (4,5).Recent genetic studies in mice have not only corroborated the wealth of biochemical studies involving NCoR1 but have also provided significant insight regarding the function of NCoR1 in mammalian development and physiology. Although it has been observed that loss of Ncor1 does not affect early embyonic development, likely due to compensation by Smrt, embryonic lethality ultimately results during mid-gestation, largely due to defects in erythropoesis and thymopoesis (6). Another study demonstrated that the NDs of NCoR1 are critical for its ability to function in a physiological setting as a transcriptional repressor of hepatic THR and Liver X Receptor (LXR) (7).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$260
100 µl
$630
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Chromatin IP, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: β-Catenin is a key downstream effector in the Wnt signaling pathway (1). It is implicated in two major biological processes in vertebrates: early embryonic development (2) and tumorigenesis (3). CK1 phosphorylates β-catenin at Ser45. This phosphorylation event primes β-catenin for subsequent phosphorylation by GSK-3β (4-6). GSK-3β destabilizes β-catenin by phosphorylating it at Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41 (7). Mutations at these sites result in the stabilization of β-catenin protein levels and have been found in many tumor cell lines (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: c-Jun is a member of the Jun family containing c-Jun, JunB, and JunD, and is a component of the transcription factor activator protein-1 (AP-1). AP-1 is composed of dimers of Fos, Jun, and ATF family members and binds to and activates transcription at TRE/AP-1 elements (reviewed in 1). Extracellular signals including growth factors, chemokines, and stress activate AP-1-dependent transcription. The transcriptional activity of c-Jun is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser63 and Ser73 through SAPK/JNK (reviewed in 2). Knock-out studies in mice have shown that c-Jun is essential for embryogenesis (3), and subsequent studies have demonstrated roles for c-Jun in various tissues and developmental processes including axon regeneration (4), liver regeneration (5), and T cell development (6). AP-1 regulated genes exert diverse biological functions including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, as well as transformation, invasion and metastasis, depending on cell type and context (7-9). Other target genes regulate survival, as well as hypoxia and angiogenesis (8,10). Research studies have implicated c-Jun as a promising therapeutic target for cancer, vascular remodeling, acute inflammation, and rheumatoid arthritis (11,12).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JunB is a basic region, leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor belonging to the Jun family that includes c-Jun and JunD. Jun family members homodimerize or heterodimerize with Fos and ATF proteins to form a functional transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1), whose activity is regulated by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli such as growth factors, infections, and stress signals (1-4). While JunB sometimes antagonizes c-Jun transcriptional activity, it may functionally substitute for c-Jun during development in mice (5-7). JunB regulates hematopoietic stem cell number and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: JunB is a basic region, leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor belonging to the Jun family that includes c-Jun and JunD. Jun family members homodimerize or heterodimerize with Fos and ATF proteins to form a functional transcription factor AP-1 (activator protein 1), whose activity is regulated by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli such as growth factors, infections, and stress signals (1-4). While JunB sometimes antagonizes c-Jun transcriptional activity, it may functionally substitute for c-Jun during development in mice (5-7). JunB regulates hematopoietic stem cell number and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Ku is a heterodimeric protein composed of two subunits (Ku70 and Ku80) originally identified by researchers as autoantigens associated with several autoimmune diseases including scleroderma, polymyositis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (1). Ku is an abundant, ubiquitously expressed nuclear protein that binds to and stabilizes the ends of DNA at telomeres or double-stranded DNA breaks (2-5). The Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer has ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity and functions as the DNA-binding regulatory component of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) (6-8). The assembly of the DNA-PK complex at DNA ends is required for nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), one mechanism involved in double-stranded DNA break repair and V(D)J recombination (8). DNA-PK has been shown to phosphorylate many proteins, including p53, serum response factor, c-Jun, c-Fos, c-Myc, Oct-1, Sp-1, and RNA polymerase II (1,8). The combined activities of Ku70/Ku80 and DNA-PK implicate Ku in many cellular functions, including cell cycle regulation, DNA replication and repair, telomere maintenance, recombination, and transcriptional activation.

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HS1 (HCLS1, LckBP1, p75) is a protein kinase substrate that is expressed only in tissues and cells of hematopoietic origin (1,2). HS1 contains four cortactin repeats and a single SH3 domain (2). This intracellular protein is phosphorylated following immune receptor activation, which promotes recruitment of HS1 to the immune synapse (3-5). Phosphorylation of HS1 is required to regulate actin dynamics and provide docking sites for many other signaling molecules, such as Vav1 and PLCγ1 (6). HS1 also plays an important role in platelet activation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: HS1 (HCLS1, LckBP1, p75) is a protein kinase substrate that is expressed only in tissues and cells of hematopoietic origin (1,2). HS1 contains four cortactin repeats and a single SH3 domain (2). This intracellular protein is phosphorylated following immune receptor activation, which promotes recruitment of HS1 to the immune synapse (3-5). Phosphorylation of HS1 is required to regulate actin dynamics and provide docking sites for many other signaling molecules, such as Vav1 and PLCγ1 (6). HS1 also plays an important role in platelet activation (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: GATA proteins comprise a group of transcription factors that are related by the presence of conserved zinc finger DNA binding domains, which bind directly to the nucleotide sequence core element GATA (1-3). There are six vertebrate GATA proteins, designated GATA-1 to GATA-6 (3).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The p53 family member, p73, exists in multiple isoforms/splice variants and can induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in response to DNA damage via its activity as a transcription regulator (1-3). Upon DNA damage, p73 is phosphorylated at Tyr99 by c-Abl, causing translocation to the nuclear matrix (4). DNA damage-induced acetylation of p73 at Lys321 by the acetyltransferase p300 has also been reported to enhance transcription of genes including that of p53AIP1 (5). Another report, however, indicates that p300 does not acetylate full-length p73 in vivo (6).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Ajuba belongs to the Zyxin/Ajuba family, members of which include LIMD1, LPP, Trip6 and Zyxin. Three LIM domains at the carboxy-terminus characterize this family of proteins. Zyxin/Ajuba family members associate with the actin cytoskeleton, are components of both cell-cell junction adhesive complex and integrin-mediated adhesive complex, and shuttle in and out of the nucleus (1). Ajuba is involved in Rac activation during cell migration and activates Aurora A in order to commit to mitosis (2-3). Ajuba and its family members also have an amino-terminal proline-rich pre-LIM region, and Ajuba augments ERK activation in a Ras-dependent manner (4).