|Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat|
Application Methods: Western Blotting
Background: Malic enzymes catalyze oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate (1). The malic enzyme family in mammalian cells includes the cytosolic malic enzyme 1 (ME1) and two mitochondrial malic enzymes (ME2 and ME3) (1, 2). ME1 and ME2 are critical for tumor cell growth and their expression is repressed by tumor suppressor p53 (2). Reduced expression of ME1 and ME2 reciprocally increases the levels and activation of p53, promoting p53-mediated senescence (2). Research studies show ME3 is essential for the survival of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma following genomic deletion of ME2 (3). Deletion of ME3 is lethal to ME2-null cancer cells, which has been suggested to provide a potential therapeutic opportunity using collateral lethality (3, 4).
Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting
Background: Cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1) catalyzes the conversion of malate and NADP+ to pyruvate and NADPH (1,2). NADPH is then used for fatty acid biosynthesis and lipogenesis (1,2). Cytosolic malic enzyme was shown to mediate high fat diet-induced adiposity (1). Mitochondrial malic enzyme (ME2) preferentially uses NAD+ to catalyze the conversion of malate to pyruvate with the concomitant generation of NADH (2). Recent studies have demonstrated that the tumor suppressor p53 regulates cell metabolism and proliferation by repressing the expression of both cytosolic malic enzyme and mitochondrial malic enzyme (3).