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Rat Gap Junction

Also showing Mouse Gap Junction

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat, Zebrafish

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins. Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. Clusters of these channels assemble to make gap junctions. Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (1,2). Ser368 of Cx43 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) after activation by phorbol esters, which decreases cell-to-cell communication (3). Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Dog, Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins. Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. Clusters of these channels assemble to make gap junctions. Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (1,2). Ser368 of Cx43 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) after activation by phorbol esters, which decreases cell-to-cell communication (3). Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Connexin 43 (Cx43) is a member of the large family of gap junction proteins. Connexins assemble as a hexamer and are transported to the plasma membrane to create a hemichannel that can associate with hemichannels on nearby cells to create cell-to-cell channels. Clusters of these channels assemble to make gap junctions. Gap junction communication is important in development and regulation of cell growth. Phosphorylation of Cx43 is important in regulating assembly and function of gap junctions (1,2). Ser368 of Cx43 is phosphorylated by protein kinase C (PKC) after activation by phorbol esters, which decreases cell-to-cell communication (3). Src can interact with and phosphorylate Cx43 to alter gap junction communication (4,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The pannexin family (pannexin-1, -2, and -3; PANX1-3) of gap junction proteins has homology to the invertebrate innexins and display distinct expression patterns (1). Pannexin-1 is widely expressed, with highest expression in the heart, brain, skeletal muscle, testis, and ovary (1,2). Pannexin-2 is predominately expressed in the brain (1,2) and pannexin-3 is found within the skin and connective tissues (1,3). Connexin family gap junction proteins form hemichannels that align adjacent cells, creating functional intercellular channels that are permeable to ions and small molecules. In contrast, pannexin proteins may not function as gap junction proteins since pannexins on adjacent cells may not align to form complete channels (3). These pannexin “hemichannels” may play a role in inflammation, apoptosis, and neuronal signaling by allowing permeability of ions, ATP, and potentially other small molecules into the extracellular space (4-6). Pannexin-1 can be activated by effector caspases (caspase-3 and -7), which leads to release of signal molecules that promote phagocytosis of apoptotic cells (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: CCN3, also named NOV (Nephroblastoma overexressed), belongs to the CCN (Cyr61, Ctgf, NOV) family of proteins. It is a cystine-rich secretory protein that associates with components of the extracellular matrix. Like other CCN family members, CCN3 is capable of mediating diverse biological functions through its four distinct domains, which enable binding to numerous protein partners (1-5).CCN3 modulates bone turnover through various mechanisms and is implicated in the progression of primary bone cancers such as osteosarcoma and chondrosarcoma (6-8). Research has shown that CCN3 is also involved in the bone metastasis of melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancers (9-11). Recently, CCN3 was reported to play an important role in stem cell renewal (12). CCN3 is normally expressed in both embryonic and adult tissues (13,14). The activity of CCN3 is influenced by post translational modifications and proteolytic cleavage (15,16).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Developmentally-regulated brain proteins (Drebrins) are cytoplasmic proteins that were originally identified in the brain as F-actin-binding proteins. There are two mammalian isoforms: adult type (A) and embryonic type (E). These isoforms are derived from a single gene through alternative RNA splicing mechanisms (1). Drebrin E has been observed to accumulate in the developmental stage of migrating neurons and in the growing cell processes of neurons. Drebrin A is found at the dendritic spines of mature cortical neurons where it plays a role in synaptic plasticity (2,3). Although drebrins are primarily found in neurons, they have also been found in skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, and kidney. Research studies have shown that reduced expression of drebrin in the brain could be associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, Down Syndrome (4), and bipolar disorders (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Developmentally-regulated brain proteins (Drebrins) are cytoplasmic proteins that were originally identified in the brain as F-actin-binding proteins. There are two mammalian isoforms: adult type (A) and embryonic type (E). These isoforms are derived from a single gene through alternative RNA splicing mechanisms (1). Drebrin E has been observed to accumulate in the developmental stage of migrating neurons and in the growing cell processes of neurons. Drebrin A is found at the dendritic spines of mature cortical neurons where it plays a role in synaptic plasticity (2,3). Although drebrins are primarily found in neurons, they have also been found in skeletal muscle, heart, pancreas, and kidney. Research studies have shown that reduced expression of drebrin in the brain could be associated with Alzheimer’s Disease, Down Syndrome (4), and bipolar disorders (5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Calretinin (29 kDa calbindin, calbindin 2) is a calcium-binding protein of the EF-hand family encoded by the CALB2 gene. It is differentially expressed from homologous family member calbindin-d28k in distinct neuronal populations of the retina, auditory system, and cerebellar granule cells (1, 2), and acts as a marker for specific neuronal subsets of the subthalamic nucleus and the substantia nigra (3). Calretinin has been shown to play an important role in modulating neuronal excitability and the induction of long-term potentiation (1). Research has shown that, pathologically, calretinin is a selective marker for epithelial mesothelioma, making it a diagnostic tool to differentiate from adenocarcinomas (4).