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Rat Regulation of Mast Cell Activation

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Lyn, one of the Src family members, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells (1). Two tyrosine residues have been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Autophosphorylation of Tyr396 (equivalent to Tyr416 of Src), located in the catalytic domain, correlates with enzyme activation. Csk-mediated phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal Tyr507 (equivalent to Tyr527 of Src) inactivates the kinase. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Lyn occurs upon association with cell surface receptors such as the B cell Ag receptor (BCR) and CD40 (2-4). Studies using knockout mice have shown that the net effect of Lyn deficiency is to render B cells hypersensitive to BCR stimulation (5-7), suggesting that the most critical role for Lyn in vivo is in the down-regulation of B cell responses. Lyn is also involved in controlling the migration and development of specific B cell populations (8).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Lyn, one of the Src family members, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells (1). Two tyrosine residues have been reported to play a crucial role in the regulation of protein tyrosine kinases of the Src family. Autophosphorylation of Tyr396 (equivalent to Tyr416 of Src), located in the catalytic domain, correlates with enzyme activation. Csk-mediated phosphorylation of the carboxy-terminal Tyr507 (equivalent to Tyr527 of Src) inactivates the kinase. Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of Lyn occurs upon association with cell surface receptors such as the B cell Ag receptor (BCR) and CD40 (2-4). Studies using knockout mice have shown that the net effect of Lyn deficiency is to render B cells hypersensitive to BCR stimulation (5-7), suggesting that the most critical role for Lyn in vivo is in the down-regulation of B cell responses. Lyn is also involved in controlling the migration and development of specific B cell populations (8).

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The Src family of protein tyrosine kinases, which includes Src, Lyn, Fyn, Yes, Lck, Blk, and Hck, are important in the regulation of growth and differentiation of eukaryotic cells (1). Src activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation at two sites, but with opposing effects. While phosphorylation at Tyr416 in the activation loop of the kinase domain upregulates enzyme activity, phosphorylation at Tyr527 in the carboxy-terminal tail by Csk renders the enzyme less active (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunofluorescence (Frozen), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: The endocannabinoid system consists of the cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2 receptors, the enzymes that produce and degrade the endogenous cannabinoid ligands (such as FAAH, DAG lipases, and MAG lipase), and the endocannabinoid ligands derived from the metabolism of arachidonic acid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (1-3). CB1 receptor belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and harbors a large N-terminal extracellular domain, seven transmembrane domains, and a C-terminal intracellular tail. CB1 receptor is coupled to the Gai/o subunit of the G protein which inhibits adenylyl cyclases and regulates calcium and potassium ion channels (4). CB1 receptor is one of the most abundant GPCRs in the central nervous system. It has been show to play critical roles in the wiring of the brain during development (5), in neuronal plasticity (6), analgesia, drug abuse and metabolic homeostasis (7). In addition, CB1 receptor has been shown to interact with other GPCRs, to give rise to novel pharmacological and signaling heteromers with implication in diseases (8,9).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Rabex-5, also called RabGEF1 and RAP1, was identified as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for Rab5, a member of the Ras superfamily of small Rab GTPases (1). Rabex-5 generates the GTP-bound active form of Rab5 and forms a tight association with its effector protein Rabaptin-5 (2). This complex localizes to endosomal membranes where it functions as a key regulator of vesicular trafficking during early endocytosis (3,4). Rabex-5 is also monoubiquitinated and has ubiquitin ligase activity that regulates its recruitment to early endosomes (5,6). The conformational change between Rab5 GTP/GDP states is essential for its biological function as a rate limiting regulator at multiple steps during endocytosis (5). Through its control of endosomal trafficking and endocytosis, Rabex-5 has been shown to negatively regulate NGF-mediated neurite outgrowth (7) as well as FcεRI-dependent mast cell activation (8).

$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346) (D98G11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5482.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$364
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology® antibody is conjugated to the carbohydrate groups of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) via its amine groups. The HRP conjugated antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346) (D98G11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5482.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$134
20 µl
$336
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$364
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry and immunofluorescent analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Phospho-NDRG1 (Thr346) (D98G11) XP® Rabbit mAb #5482.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), also termed Cap43, Drg1, RTP/rit42, and Proxy-1, is a member of the NDRG family, which is composed of four members (NDRG1-4) that function in growth, differentiation, and cell survival (1-5). NDRG1 is ubiquitously expressed and highly responsive to a variety of stress signals including DNA damage (4), hypoxia (5), and elevated levels of nickel and calcium (2). Expression of NDRG1 is elevated in N-myc defective mice and is negatively regulated by N- and c-myc (1,6). During DNA damage, NDRG1 is induced in a p53-dependent fashion and is necessary for p53-mediated apoptosis (4,7). Research studies have shown that NDRG1 may also play a role in cancer progression by promoting differentiation, inhibiting growth, and modulating metastasis and angiogenesis (3,4,6,8,9). Nonsense mutation of the NDRG1 gene has been shown to cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy-Lom (HMSNL), which is supported by studies demonstrating the role of NDRG1 in maintaining myelin sheaths and axonal survival (10,11). NDRG1 is up-regulated during mast cell maturation and its deletion leads to attenuated allergic responses (12). Both NDRG1 and NDRG2 are substrates of SGK1, although the precise physiological role of SGK1-mediated phosphorylation is not known (13). NDRG1 is phosphorylated by SGK1 at Thr328, Ser330, Thr346, Thr356, and Thr366. Phosphorylation by SGK1 primes NDRG1 for phosphorylation by GSK-3.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme that results in the release of carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin (1). The products of this enzymatic reaction play important biological roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions (2). Heme oxygenase comprises two isozymes, including the constitutively expressed HO-2 isozyme and the inducible HO-1 isozyme (3). Inducible HO-1 is expressed as an adaptive response to several stimuli, including heme, metals, and hormones (4). The induction of HO-1 has been implicated in numerous disease states, such as transplant rejection, hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, endotoxic shock, diabetes, inflammation, and neurological disorders (1,5).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Heme oxygenase (HO) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolism of heme that results in the release of carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin (1). The products of this enzymatic reaction play important biological roles in antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective functions (2). Heme oxygenase comprises two isozymes, including the constitutively expressed HO-2 isozyme and the inducible HO-1 isozyme (3). Inducible HO-1 is expressed as an adaptive response to several stimuli, including heme, metals, and hormones (4). The induction of HO-1 has been implicated in numerous disease states, such as transplant rejection, hypertension, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, endotoxic shock, diabetes, inflammation, and neurological disorders (1,5).

$111
20 µl
$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

$122
20 µl
$303
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Hamster, Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.

$303
100 µl
$717
300 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) plays a central role in many signal transduction pathways (1,2) including the activation of Akt and the PKC isoenzymes p70 S6 kinase and RSK (3). Through its effects on these kinases, PDK1 is involved in the regulation of a wide variety of processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis.