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Rat Regulatory t Cell Differentiation

Also showing Rat Negative Regulation of Regulatory t Cell Differentiation

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IRF-1 (D5E4) XP® Rabbit mAb #8478.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 488 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IRF-1 (D5E4) XP® Rabbit mAb #8478.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$348
50 tests
100 µl
This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to Alexa Fluor® 647 fluorescent dye and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in human cells. The antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated IRF-1 (D5E4) XP® Rabbit mAb #8478.
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$122
20 µl
$293
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting

Background: Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) comprise a family of transcription factors that function within the Jak/Stat pathway to regulate interferon (IFN) and IFN-inducible gene expression in response to viral infection (1). IRFs play an important role in pathogen defense, autoimmunity, lymphocyte development, cell growth, and susceptibility to transformation. The IRF family includes nine members: IRF-1, IRF-2, IRF-9/ISGF3γ, IRF-3, IRF-4 (Pip/LSIRF/ICSAT), IRF-5, IRF-6, IRF-7, and IRF-8/ICSBP. All IRF proteins share homology in their amino-terminal DNA-binding domains. IRF family members regulate transcription through interactions with proteins that share similar DNA-binding motifs, such as IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE), IFN consensus sequences (ICS), and IFN regulatory elements (IRF-E) (2).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Monkey, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: The most well characterized nuclear receptor corepressors are SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors) and its close paralog NCoR1 (nuclear receptor corepressor) (1,2). NCoR1 functions to transcriptionally silence various unliganded, DNA bound non-steroidal nuclear receptors by serving as a large molecular scaffold that bridges the receptors with multiple chromatin remodeling factors that repress nuclear receptor-mediated gene transcription, in part, through deacetylation of core histones surrounding target promoters. Indeed, the N-terminal portion of NCoR1 possesses multiple distinct transcriptional repression domains (RDs) reponsible for the recruitment of additional components of the corepressor complex such as HDACs, mSin3, GPS2, and TBL1/TBLR1. In between the RDs lies a pair of potent repressor motifs known as SANT motifs (SWI3, ADA2, N-CoR, and TFIIIB), which recruit HDAC3 and histones to the repressor complex in order to enhance HDAC3 activity (3). The C-terminal portion of NCoR1 contains multiple nuclear receptor interaction domains (NDs), each of which contains a conserved CoRNR box (or L/I-X-X-I/V-I) motif that allow for binding to various unliganded nuclear hormone receptors such as thyroid hormone (THR) and retinoic acid (RAR) receptors (4,5).Recent genetic studies in mice have not only corroborated the wealth of biochemical studies involving NCoR1 but have also provided significant insight regarding the function of NCoR1 in mammalian development and physiology. Although it has been observed that loss of Ncor1 does not affect early embyonic development, likely due to compensation by Smrt, embryonic lethality ultimately results during mid-gestation, largely due to defects in erythropoesis and thymopoesis (6). Another study demonstrated that the NDs of NCoR1 are critical for its ability to function in a physiological setting as a transcriptional repressor of hepatic THR and Liver X Receptor (LXR) (7).

$260
100 µl
APPLICATIONS
REACTIVITY
Human, Mouse, Rat

Application Methods: Western Blotting

Background: Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).