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siRNA Negative Regulation of Alpha-Beta t Cell Proliferation

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Cbl-b siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Cbl-b expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: The Casitas B lineage lymphoma (Cbl) proteins (in mammals these are c-Cbl, Cbl-b, and Cbl-c) are a family of single subunit RING finger protein-ubiquitin E3 ligases that contain multiple protein interaction motifs (1). All Cbl proteins have a highly conserved N-terminal tyrosine kinase-binding (TKB) domain that mediates interactions between Cbl proteins and phosphorylated tyrosine residues on Cbl substrates. C-terminal to the RING finger, Cbl proteins have proline-rich domains that mediate interactions with SH3 domain-containing proteins. Phosphorylated tyrosine residues mediate interactions with SH2 domain-containing proteins such as the p85 subunit of PI3K. These protein-protein interaction motifs allow Cbl family proteins to function as adaptor proteins (2). This adaptor function contributes to the E3-dependent activities of Cbl proteins by targeting specific substrates for ubiquitination and degradation. The adaptor function also contributes to non-E3-dependent activities, such as the recruitment of proteins involved in receptor tyrosine kinase internalization, localization of Cbl proteins to specific subcellular compartments, and activation of discrete signaling pathways (1).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® B-Raf siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit B-Raf expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: A-Raf, B-Raf, and c-Raf (Raf-1) are the main effectors recruited by GTP-bound Ras to activate the MEK-MAP kinase pathway (1). Activation of c-Raf is the best understood and involves phosphorylation at multiple activating sites including Ser338, Tyr341, Thr491, Ser494, Ser497, and Ser499 (2). p21-activated protein kinase (PAK) has been shown to phosphorylate c-Raf at Ser338, and the Src family phosphorylates Tyr341 to induce c-Raf activity (3,4). Ser338 of c-Raf corresponds to similar sites in A-Raf (Ser299) and B-Raf (Ser445), although this site is constitutively phosphorylated in B-Raf (5). Inhibitory 14-3-3 binding sites on c-Raf (Ser259 and Ser621) can be phosphorylated by Akt and AMPK, respectively (6,7). While A-Raf, B-Raf, and c-Raf are similar in sequence and function, differential regulation has been observed (8). Of particular interest, B-Raf contains three consensus Akt phosphorylation sites (Ser364, Ser428, and Thr439) and lacks a site equivalent to Tyr341 of c-Raf (8,9). Research studies have shown that the B-Raf mutation V600E results in elevated kinase activity and is commonly found in malignant melanoma (10). Six residues of c-Raf (Ser29, Ser43, Ser289, Ser296, Ser301, and Ser642) become hyperphosphorylated in a manner consistent with c-Raf inactivation. The hyperphosphorylation of these six sites is dependent on downstream MEK signaling and renders c-Raf unresponsive to subsequent activation events (11).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Bcl-2 siRNA I from Cell Signaling Technology (CST) allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Bcl-2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products from CST are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Bcl-2 exerts a survival function in response to a wide range of apoptotic stimuli through inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release (1). It has been implicated in modulating mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and proton flux (2). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified within Bcl-2 including Thr56, Ser70, Thr74, and Ser87 (3). It has been suggested that these phosphorylation sites may be targets of the ASK1/MKK7/JNK1 pathway and that phosphorylation of Bcl-2 may be a marker for mitotic events (4,5). Mutation of Bcl-2 at Thr56 or Ser87 inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity during glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of T lymphocytes (6). Interleukin-3 and JNK-induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Ser70 may be required for its enhanced anti-apoptotic functions (7).

$262
3 nmol
300 µl
SignalSilence® Bcl-2 siRNA II allows the researcher to specifically inhibit Bcl-2 expression using RNA interference, a method whereby gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce target protein expression by western analysis.
REACTIVITY
Human

Background: Bcl-2 exerts a survival function in response to a wide range of apoptotic stimuli through inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome c release (1). It has been implicated in modulating mitochondrial calcium homeostasis and proton flux (2). Several phosphorylation sites have been identified within Bcl-2 including Thr56, Ser70, Thr74, and Ser87 (3). It has been suggested that these phosphorylation sites may be targets of the ASK1/MKK7/JNK1 pathway and that phosphorylation of Bcl-2 may be a marker for mitotic events (4,5). Mutation of Bcl-2 at Thr56 or Ser87 inhibits its anti-apoptotic activity during glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of T lymphocytes (6). Interleukin-3 and JNK-induced Bcl-2 phosphorylation at Ser70 may be required for its enhanced anti-apoptotic functions (7).