Application Methods: Flow Cytometry, Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin)
Background: TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81 antibodies detect antigens present on the surface of human stem, teratocarcinoma, and embryonic germ cells (1). TRA-1-60(S) reacts with a neuraminidase sensitive epitope of a proteoglycan (2,3), while TRA-1-81 reacts with a neuraminidase insensitive epitope on the same antigen. Recently this antigen has been proposed to be a form of the protein podocalyxin (4). TRA-1-60 is also detected in the serum of patients with germ cell tumors (5,6).
Background: Pluripotency is the ability of a cell to differentiate into cell types of the three germ layers, the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. It is a property shared by embryonic stem cells, embryonic carcinoma, and induced pluripotent cells.SSEA4, TRA-1-81, and TRA-1-60 antibodies recognize antigens expressed on the cell surface of all pluripotent cells. SSEA4 recognizes a glycolipid carbohydrate epitope (1). TRA-1-60(S) and TRA-1-81 antibodies recognize different proteoglycan epitopes on variants of the same protein, podocalyxin (2). These epitopes are neuraminidase sensitive and resistant, respectively. Reactivity of SSEA4, TRA-1-81 and TRA-1-60 antibodies with their respective cell surface markers are lost upon differentiation of pluripotent cells, corresponding with a loss of pluripotent potential (3).