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SAPK/JNK Signaling Cascades

© Cell Signaling Technology. All Rights Reserved.
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Pathway Description:

Stress-activated protein kinases (SAPK)/Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) are members of the MAPK family and are activated by a variety of environmental stresses, inflam- matory cytokines, growth factors, and GPCR agonists. Stress signals are delivered to this cascade by small GTPases of the Rho family (Rac, Rho, cdc42). As with the other MAPKs, the membrane proximal kinase is a MAPKKK, typically MEKK1–4, or a member of the mixed lineage kinases (MLK) that phosphorylates and activates MKK4 (SEK) or MKK7, the SAPK/JNK kinases. Alternatively, MKK4/7 can be activated by a member of the germinal center kinase (GCK) family in a GTPase-independent manner. SAPK/JNK translocates to the nucleus where it can regulate the activity of multiple transcription factors.

Selected Reviews:

We would like to thank Prof. John Blenis, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, for reviewing this diagram.

created January 2002

revised October 2012

  • KinaseKinase
  • PhosphatasePhosphatase
  • Transcription FactorTranscription Factor
  • CaspaseCaspase
  • ReceptorReceptor
  • EnzymeEnzyme
  • pro-apoptoticpro-apoptotic
  • pro-survivalpro-survival
  • GTPaseGTPase
  • G-proteinG-protein
  • AcetylaseAcetylase
  • DeacetylaseDeacetylase
  • Ribosomal subunitRibosomal subunit
  • Direct Stimulatory ModificationDirect Stimulatory Modification
  • Direct Inhibitory ModificationDirect Inhibitory Modification
  • Multistep Stimulatory ModificationMultistep Stimulatory Modification
  • Multistep Inhibitory ModificationMultistep Inhibitory Modification
  • Tentative Stimulatory ModificationTentative Stimulatory Modification
  • Tentative Inhibitory ModificationTentative Inhibitory Modification
  • Separation of Subunits or Cleavage ProductsSeparation of Subunits or Cleavage Products
  • Joining of SubunitsJoining of Subunits
  • TranslocationTranslocation
  • Transcriptional Stimulatory ModificationTranscriptional Stimulatory Modification
  • Transcriptional Inhibitory ModificationTranscriptional Inhibitory Modification