Product Pathways - TGF-beta/Smad Signaling
Smad2/3 Antibody #3102
|3102S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|3102||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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|W||1:1000||Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey||Endogenous||52, 60||Rabbit|
Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation
Specificity / Sensitivity
Smad2 Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Smad2/3 protein.
Source / Purification
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues in the amino-terminal region of Smad2/3. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
Following stimulation by TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated at their carboxyl termini (Ser465 and 467 on Smad2; Ser423 and 425 on Smad3) by TGF-β Receptor I. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 can complex with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression (9-11).
- Heldin, C.H. et al. (1997) Nature 390, 465-471.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (1998) Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 10, 188-194.
- Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-740.
- Massague, J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67, 753-791.
- Whitman, M. (1998) Genes Dev. 12, 2445-2462.
- Wu, G. et al. (2000) Science 287, 92-97.
- Attisano, L. and Wrana, J.L. (2002) Science 296, 1646-1647.
- Moustakas, A. et al. (2001) J. Cell Sci. 114, 4359-4369.
- Abdollah, S. et al. (1997) J Biol Chem 272, 27678-85.
- Souchelnytskyi, S. et al. (1997) J Biol Chem 272, 28107-15.
- Liu, X. et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 10669-74.
- Liu, C. et al. (2013) J Clin Invest 123, 1138-56. Applications: Western Blotting.
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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