The Akt Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugated Antibody Sampler Kit provides an economical means to study the activation state of Akt without the need for a fluorescent secondary antibody.
Phospho-Akt (Ser473) (D9E) XP® Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of Akt only when phosphorylated at Ser473. Phospho-Akt (Thr308) (C31E5E) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of Akt only when phosphorylated at Thr308. Akt (pan) (C67E7) Rabbit mAb (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total Akt protein.
Monoclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues around Ser473 of human Akt protein,
a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues around Thr308 of mouse Akt protein, or a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues near the carboxy terminus of mouse Akt protein.
Akt, also referred to as PKB or Rac, plays a critical role in controlling survival and apoptosis (1-3). This protein kinase is activated by insulin and various growth and survival factors to function in a wortmannin-sensitive pathway involving PI3 kinase (2,3). Akt is activated by phospholipid binding and activation loop phosphorylation at Thr308 by PDK1 (4) and by phosphorylation within the carboxy terminus at Ser473. The previously elusive PDK2 responsible for phosphorylation of Akt at Ser473 has been identified as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in a rapamycin-insensitive complex with rictor and Sin1 (5,6). Akt promotes cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis through phosphorylation and inactivation of several targets, including Bad (7), forkhead transcription factors (8), c-Raf (9), and caspase-9. PTEN phosphatase is a major negative regulator of the PI3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway (10). LY294002 is a specific PI3 kinase inhibitor (11). Another essential Akt function is the regulation of glycogen synthesis through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3α and β (12,13). Akt may also play a role in insulin stimulation of glucose transport (12). In addition to its role in survival and glycogen synthesis, Akt is involved in cell cycle regulation by preventing GSK-3β-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of cyclin D1 (14) and by negatively regulating the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors p27 Kip1 (15) and p21 Waf1/Cip1 (16). Akt also plays a critical role in cell growth by directly phosphorylating mTOR in a rapamycin-sensitive complex containing raptor (17). More importantly, Akt phosphorylates and inactivates tuberin (TSC2), an inhibitor of mTOR within the mTOR-raptor complex (18,19).
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. DRAQ5 is a registered trademark of Biostatus Limited.
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