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90683
GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
Antibody Conjugates
Monoclonal Antibody

GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) #90683

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Flow Cytometry Image 1: GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)

Flow cytometric analysis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, untreated (left column) or treated with anti-CD3 (10

μg/ml, 72 hr) and anti-CD28 (5 μg/ml, 72 hr) (right column), using GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (top row) or concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (bottom row), and co-stained with CD3 (UCHT1) Mouse mAb (violetFluor™ 450 Conjugate) #61347.

To Purchase # 90683S
Product # Size Price
90683S
100 µl  (50 tests) $ 323

Supporting Data

REACTIVITY H
SENSITIVITY Endogenous
MW (kDa)
Source/Isotype Rabbit IgG

Application Key:

  • W-Western
  • IP-Immunoprecipitation
  • IHC-Immunohistochemistry
  • ChIP-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • IF-Immunofluorescence
  • F-Flow Cytometry
  • E-P-ELISA-Peptide

Species Cross-Reactivity Key:

  • H-Human
  • M-Mouse
  • R-Rat
  • Hm-Hamster
  • Mk-Monkey
  • Mi-Mink
  • C-Chicken
  • Dm-D. melanogaster
  • X-Xenopus
  • Z-Zebrafish
  • B-Bovine
  • Dg-Dog
  • Pg-Pig
  • Sc-S. cerevisiae
  • Ce-C. elegans
  • Hr-Horse
  • All-All Species Expected

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb #10419.

Product Usage Information

Application Dilution
Flow Cytometry 1:50

Storage

Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Protocol

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Flow Cytometry, Live Cell Protocol for Directly Conjugated Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 1X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 100 ml 10X PBS (#12528) to 900 ml water, mix.
  2. Antibody Dilution Buffer: Purchase ready-to-use Flow Cytometry Antibody Dilution Buffer (#13616), or prepare a 0.5% BSA PBS buffer by dissolving 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.

NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com for a full listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.

B. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to Immunostaining.

NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells. (Generally, 5x105 to 1x106 cells per assay.)
  2. Pellet cells by centrifugation and remove supernatant.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody, prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at a recommended dilution or as determined via titration.
  4. Incubate for 30 min to 1 hr on ice. Protect from light.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 200-500 µl of Antibody Dilution Buffer and analyze on flow cytometer.

posted June 2017

revised June 2020

Protocol Id: 1504

Specificity / Sensitivity

GITR (D5V7P) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total GITR protein.

Species Reactivity:

Human

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with recombinant protein specific to the amino terminus of human GITR protein.

Background

TNFRSF18, also known as glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor-receptor (TNFR)-related protein (GITR) and activation-inducible TNFR family receptor, encodes a type 1 membrane protein of the TNF-receptor superfamily (1). Three alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been reported (2). GITR is an immune cell co-stimulatory receptor expressed constitutively at high levels on CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs), at low levels on naïve and memory T cells, and is induced upon T cell activation (3-5). Studies show GITR can also be induced on NK cells, macrophages, and DCs (3,4,6). Although GITR does not have intrinsic enzymatic activity, TNFSF18 (also known as GITRL) expressed on antigen presenting cells binds to GITR, resulting in recruitment of TNFR-associated factor family members and activation of the NF-kappa-B pathway in T cells (7). GITR ligation has been shown to play a role in CD8+ T cell activation, cytotoxicity, and memory T cell survival (8-10). In the thymus, GITR is thought to play a key role in dominant immunological self-tolerance through thymic Treg differentiation and expansion (11). Of note, GITR ligation inhibits Treg suppressive function (12-13) and promotes effector T cell resistance to Treg suppression (14-15). Due to the combined effects on both Treg suppression and effector cell activation, GITR represents a unique opportunity for immunotherapeutic intervention in cancer (16).

  1. Nocentini, G. et al. (1997) Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94, 6216-21.
  2. Nocentini, G. et al. (2000) Cell Death Differ 7, 408-10.
  3. Shimizu, J. et al. (2002) Nat Immunol 3, 135-42.
  4. Nocentini, G. and Riccardi, C. (2009) Adv Exp Med Biol 647, 156-73.
  5. McHugh, R.S. et al. (2002) Immunity 16, 311-23.
  6. Hanabuchi, S. et al. (2006) Blood 107, 3617-23.
  7. Snell, L.M. et al. (2011) Immunol Rev 244, 197-217.
  8. Ronchetti, S. et al. (2007) J Immunol 179, 5916-26.
  9. Kim, I.K. et al. (2015) Nat Med 21, 1010-7.
  10. Snell, L.M. et al. (2012) J Immunol 188, 5915-23.
  11. Petrillo, M.G. et al. (2015) Autoimmun Rev 14, 117-26.
  12. Kanamaru, F. et al. (2004) J Immunol 172, 7306-14.
  13. Valzasina, B. et al. (2005) Blood 105, 2845-51.
  14. Stephens, G.L. et al. (2004) J Immunol 173, 5008-20.
  15. Nishikawa, H. et al. (2008) Cancer Res 68, 5948-54.
  16. Knee, D.A. et al. (2016) Eur J Cancer 67, 1-10.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

Limited Uses

Except as otherwise expressly agreed in a writing signed by a legally authorized representative of CST, the following terms apply to Products provided by CST, its affiliates or its distributors. Any Customer's terms and conditions that are in addition to, or different from, those contained herein, unless separately accepted in writing by a legally authorized representative of CST, are rejected and are of no force or effect.

Products are labeled with For Research Use Only or a similar labeling statement and have not been approved, cleared, or licensed by the FDA or other regulatory foreign or domestic entity, for any purpose. Customer shall not use any Product for any diagnostic or therapeutic purpose, or otherwise in any manner that conflicts with its labeling statement. Products sold or licensed by CST are provided for Customer as the end-user and solely for research and development uses. Any use of Product for diagnostic, prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, or any purchase of Product for resale (alone or as a component) or other commercial purpose, requires a separate license from CST. Customer shall (a) not sell, license, loan, donate or otherwise transfer or make available any Product to any third party, whether alone or in combination with other materials, or use the Products to manufacture any commercial products, (b) not copy, modify, reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or otherwise attempt to discover the underlying structure or technology of the Products, or use the Products for the purpose of developing any products or services that would compete with CST's products or services, (c) not alter or remove from the Products any trademarks, trade names, logos, patent or copyright notices or markings, (d) use the Products solely in accordance with CST's Product Terms of Sale and any applicable documentation, and (e) comply with any license, terms of service or similar agreement with respect to any third party products or services used by Customer in connection with the Products.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
violetFluor is a registered trademark of Tonbo Biosciences.