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53604
Histone H2A.X (D17A3) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
Antibody Conjugates

Histone H2A.X (D17A3) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) #53604

APPLICATIONS

REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H M R Mk Endogenous Rabbit IgG
Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis of MCF7 cells using Histone H2A.X (D17A3) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (solid lines) or a concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (dashed lines).

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Flow Cytometry Triton™ X-100 Permeabilization Protocol - Conjugated Antibody

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) #9808: To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde (methanol free).
  3. Incubation Buffer (1X PBS / 0.5% BSA): Dissolve 0.5 g bovine serum albumin (BSA) in 100 mL 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  4. Permeabilization Buffer (1X PBS / 0.3% Triton™ X-100 / 0.5% BSA): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml Incubation Buffer.

B. Fixation and Permabilization

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

  1. Collect cells by centrifugation and aspirate supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells briefly in 0.5-1 ml PBS. Add formaldehyde to a final concentration of 2-4% formaldehyde.
  3. Fix for 15 minutes at room temperature (20-25 °C).
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container.
  5. Resuspend cells in 1 ml Permeabilization Buffer.
  6. Incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature.
  7. Proceed with staining or store cells at +4°C in PBS with 0.1% sodium azide.

C. Staining Using Conjugated Primary Antibody

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells (suggested range of 0.5x106 to 1x106 cells).
  2. Centrifuge cells and discard supernatant.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted conjugated primary antibody (prepared in Incubation Buffer at the recommended dilution).
  4. Incubate for 30-60 min at room temperature (20-25 °C). Protect from light.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer; alternatively, for DNA staining, proceed to optional DNA stain (Section D).

D. Optional DNA Dye

  1. Resuspend cells in 0.1-0.5 ml of DNA dye (e.g. Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087).
  2. Incubate for at least 5 min at room temperature.
  3. Analyze cells in DNA staining solution on flow cytometer.

posted January 2017

revised May 2018

Protocol Id: 1344

Application Dilutions
Flow Cytometry 1:50
Storage:

Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Histone H2A.X (D17A3) XP® Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total histone H2A.X protein. This antibody does not cross-react with other histone H2A proteins.

Species Reactivity:

Human, Mouse, Rat, Monkey

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Val124 of human histone H2A.X protein.

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometric analysis in human cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated Histone H2A.X (D17A3) XP® Rabbit mAb #7631.

Histone H2A.X is a variant histone that represents approximately 10% of the total H2A histone proteins in normal human fibroblasts (1). H2A.X is required for checkpoint-mediated cell cycle arrest and DNA repair following double-stranded DNA breaks (1). DNA damage, caused by ionizing radiation, UV-light, or radiomimetic agents, results in rapid phosphorylation of H2A.X at Ser139 by PI3K-like kinases, including ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK (2,3). Within minutes following DNA damage, H2A.X is phosphorylated at Ser139 at sites of DNA damage (4). This very early event in the DNA-damage response is required for recruitment of a multitude of DNA-damage response proteins, including MDC1, NBS1, RAD50, MRE11, 53BP1, and BRCA1 (1). In addition to its role in DNA-damage repair, H2A.X is required for DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and is phosphorylated by various kinases in response to apoptotic signals. H2A.X is phosphorylated at Ser139 by DNA-PK in response to cell death receptor activation, c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK1) in response to UV-A irradiation, and p38 MAPK in response to serum starvation (5-8). H2A.X is constitutively phosphorylated on Tyr142 in undamaged cells by WSTF (Williams-Beuren syndrome transcription factor) (9,10). Upon DNA damage, and concurrent with phosphorylation of Ser139, Tyr142 is dephosphorylated at sites of DNA damage by recruited EYA1 and EYA3 phosphatases (9). While phosphorylation at Ser139 facilitates the recruitment of DNA repair proteins and apoptotic proteins to sites of DNA damage, phosphorylation at Tyr142 appears to determine which set of proteins are recruited. Phosphorylation of H2A.X at Tyr142 inhibits the recruitment of DNA repair proteins and promotes binding of pro-apoptotic factors such as JNK1 (9). Mouse embryonic fibroblasts expressing only mutant H2A.X Y142F, which favors recruitment of DNA repair proteins over apoptotic proteins, show a reduced apoptotic response to ionizing radiation (9). Thus, it appears that the balance of H2A.X Tyr142 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation provides a switch mechanism to determine cell fate after DNA damage.

  1. Yuan, J. et al. (2010) FEBS Lett 584, 3717-24.
  2. Rogakou, E.P. et al. (1998) J Biol Chem 273, 5858-68.
  3. Burma, S. et al. (2001) J Biol Chem 276, 42462-7.
  4. Rogakou, E.P. et al. (1999) J Cell Biol 146, 905-16.
  5. Mukherjee, B. et al. (2006) DNA Repair (Amst) 5, 575-90.
  6. Solier, S. et al. (2009) Mol Cell Biol 29, 68-82.
  7. Lu, C. et al. (2006) Mol Cell 23, 121-32.
  8. Lu, C. et al. (2008) FEBS Lett 582, 2703-8.
  9. Cook, P.J. et al. (2009) Nature 458, 591-6.
  10. Xiao, A. et al. (2009) Nature 457, 57-62.
Entrez-Gene Id
3014
Swiss-Prot Acc.
P16104
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.

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Product # Size Price
53604S
100 µl  (50 tests) $ 341.0