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86495
PKCθ (E1I7Y) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate)
Antibody Conjugates

PKCθ (E1I7Y) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) #86495

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Flow cytometric analysis of mouse splenocytes using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (PE Conjugate) #5742 (left) and PKCθ (E1I7Y) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) (right). Splenocytes were co-stained with anti-CD3 conjugated to APC.

To Purchase # 86495S
Product # Size Price
86495S
100 µl  (50 tests) $ 305

Supporting Data

REACTIVITY H M R
SENSITIVITY Endogenous
MW (kDa)
Isotype Rabbit IgG

Application Key:

  • W-Western
  • IP-Immunoprecipitation
  • IHC-Immunohistochemistry
  • ChIP-Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
  • IF-Immunofluorescence
  • F-Flow Cytometry
  • E-P-ELISA-Peptide

Species Cross-Reactivity Key:

  • H-Human
  • M-Mouse
  • R-Rat
  • Hm-Hamster
  • Mk-Monkey
  • Mi-Mink
  • C-Chicken
  • Dm-D. melanogaster
  • X-Xenopus
  • Z-Zebrafish
  • B-Bovine
  • Dg-Dog
  • Pg-Pig
  • Sc-S. cerevisiae
  • Ce-C. elegans
  • Hr-Horse
  • All-All Species Expected

Product Description

This Cell Signaling Technology antibody is conjugated to phycoerythrin (PE) and tested in-house for direct flow cytometry analysis in mouse cells. This antibody is expected to exhibit the same species cross-reactivity as the unconjugated PKCθ (E1I7Y) Rabbit mAb #13643.

Product Usage Information

Application Dilution
Flow Cytometry 1:50

Storage:

Supplied in PBS (pH 7.2), less than 0.1% sodium azide and 2 mg/ml BSA. Store at 4°C. Do not aliquot the antibody. Protect from light. Do not freeze.

Protocol

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Flow Cytometry, Methanol Permeabilization Protocol for Directly Conjugated Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

All reagents required for this protocol may be efficiently purchased together in our Intracellular Flow Cytometry Kit (Methanol) #13593, or individually using the catalog numbers listed below.

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 1X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 100 ml 10X PBS (#12528) to 900 ml water mix.
  2. 4% Formaldehyde, Methanol-Free (#47746)
  3. 100% Methanol (#13604): Chill before use
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer: Purchase ready-to-use Flow Cytometry Antibody Dilution Buffer (#13616), or prepare a 0.5% BSA PBS buffer by dissolving 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.

NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (including viability dyes, DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for the recommended protocol. Visit www.cellsignal.com/flowdyes for a listing of cellular dyes validated for use in flow cytometry.

B. Fixation

NOTE: Adherent cells or tissue should be dissociated and in single-cell suspension prior to fixation.

NOTE: Optimal centrifugation conditions will vary depending upon cell type and reagent volume. Generally, 150-300g for 1-5 minutes will be sufficient to pellet the cells.

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

NOTE: Antibodies targeting CD markers or other extracellular proteins may be added prior to fixation if the epitope is disrupted by formaldehyde and/or methanol. The antibodies will remain bound to the target of interest during the fixation and permeabilization process. However, note that some fluorophores (including PE and APC) are damaged by methanol and thus should not be added prior to permeabilization. Conduct a small-scale experiment if you are unsure.

  1. Pellet cells by centrifugation and remove supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells in approximately 100 µl 4% formaldehyde per 1 million cells. Mix well to dissociate pellet and prevent cross-linking of individual cells.
  3. Fix for 15 min at room temperature (20-25°C).
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS. Proceed to Permeabilization step.
    1. Alternatively, cells may be stored overnight at 4°C in 1X PBS.

C. Permeabilization

  1. Permeabilize cells by adding ice-cold 100% methanol slowly to pre-chilled cells, while gently vortexing, to a final concentration of 90% methanol.
  2. Permeabilize for a minimum of 10 min on ice.
  3. Proceed with immunostaining (Section D) or store cells at -20°C in 90% methanol.

D. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells. (Generally, 5x105 to 1x106 cells per assay.)
  2. Wash cells by centrifugation in excess 1X PBS to remove methanol. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Repeat if necessary.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody, prepared in Antibody Dilution Buffer at a recommended dilution or as determined via titration.
  4. Incubate for 1 hr at room temperature. Protect from light.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in Antibody Dilution Buffer or 1X PBS. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 200-500 µl of 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer.

posted July 2009

revised August 2019

Protocol Id: 407

Specificity / Sensitivity

PKCθ (E1I7Y) Rabbit mAb (PE Conjugate) recognizes endogenous levels of total PKCθ protein.

Species Reactivity:

Human, Mouse, Rat

Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology:

Bovine

Source / Purification

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Pro632 of human PKCθ protein.

Background

Activation of protein kinase C (PKC) is one of the earliest events in a cascade that controls a variety of cellular responses, including secretion, gene expression, proliferation, and muscle contraction (1,2). PKC isoforms belong to three groups based on calcium dependency and activators. Classical PKCs are calcium-dependent via their C2 domains and are activated by phosphatidylserine (PS), diacylglycerol (DAG), and phorbol esters (TPA, PMA) through their cysteine-rich C1 domains. Both novel and atypical PKCs are calcium-independent, but only novel PKCs are activated by PS, DAG, and phorbol esters (3-5). Members of these three PKC groups contain a pseudo-substrate or autoinhibitory domain that binds to substrate-binding sites in the catalytic domain to prevent activation in the absence of cofactors or activators. Control of PKC activity is regulated through three distinct phosphorylation events. Phosphorylation occurs in vivo at Thr500 in the activation loop, at Thr641 through autophosphorylation, and at the carboxy-terminal hydrophobic site Ser660 (2). Atypical PKC isoforms lack hydrophobic region phosphorylation, which correlates with the presence of glutamic acid rather than the serine or threonine residues found in more typical PKC isoforms. The enzyme PDK1 or a close relative is responsible for PKC activation. A recent addition to the PKC superfamily is PKCμ (PKD), which is regulated by DAG and TPA through its C1 domain. PKD is distinguished by the presence of a PH domain and by its unique substrate recognition and Golgi localization (6). PKC-related kinases (PRK) lack the C1 domain and do not respond to DAG or phorbol esters. Phosphatidylinositol lipids activate PRKs, and small Rho-family GTPases bind to the homology region 1 (HR1) to regulate PRK kinase activity (7).

  1. Nishizuka, Y. (1984) Nature 308, 693-8.
  2. Keranen, L.M. et al. (1995) Curr Biol 5, 1394-403.
  3. Mellor, H. and Parker, P.J. (1998) Biochem J 332 ( Pt 2), 281-92.
  4. Ron, D. and Kazanietz, M.G. (1999) FASEB J 13, 1658-76.
  5. Moscat, J. and Diaz-Meco, M.T. (2000) EMBO Rep 1, 399-403.
  6. Baron, C.L. and Malhotra, V. (2002) Science 295, 325-8.
  7. Flynn, P. et al. (2000) J Biol Chem 275, 11064-70.

Pathways & Proteins

Explore pathways + proteins related to this product.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

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