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Human TGF-β3

Human TGF-β3 #3706

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# Product Name Application Reactivity

Western blot analysis of extracts from serum-starved HeLa cells treated for 30 minutes with various concentrations of Human TGF-β3 using Phospho-Smad2 (Ser465/467) (138D4) Rabbit mAb #3108 (upper) and Smad2 (86F7) Rabbit mAb #3122 (lower).

Product Usage Information

The working concentration of TGF-β3 generally ranges from 10-50 ng/ml.


Lyophilized product is very stable at -20°C. It is recommended to reconstitute with sterile water at a concentration of 0.1 mg/ml, which can be further diluted in aqueous solutions as needed. Addition of a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA) is recommended for long-term storage.

Product Description

Recombinant human TGF-β3 expressed in E. coli and is supplied in a lyophilized form. A greater than 95% purity was determined by reverse-phase HPLC and SDS-PAGE.




Specific activity was determined to be less than 0.05 ng/ml.

Source / Purification

Recombinant human TGF-β3 expressed in E. coli


Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation, developmental patterning and morphogenesis, and disease pathogenesis (1-4). TGF-β elicits signaling through three cell surface receptors: type I (RI), type II (RII), and type III (RIII). Type I and type II receptors are serine/threonine kinases that form a heteromeric complex. In response to ligand binding, the type II receptors form a stable complex with the type I receptors allowing phosphorylation and activation of type I receptor kinases (5). The type III receptor, also known as betaglycan, is a transmembrane proteoglycan with a large extracellular domain that binds TGF-β with high affinity but lacks a cytoplasmic signaling domain (6,7). Expression of the type III receptor can regulate TGF-β signaling through presentation of the ligand to the signaling complex. The only known direct TGF-β signaling effectors are the Smad family proteins, which transduce signals from the cell surface directly to the nucleus to regulate target gene transcription (8,9).

Three isoforms of TGF-β, designated TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, are encoded by distinct genes and are expressed in a tissue specific manner (10). Each isoform is synthesized as a larger precursor protein containing a propeptide region that is removed prior to secretion. Mature TGF-β contains two polypeptides linked by disulfide bonds to form a protein of approximately 25 kDa.

  1. Massagué, J. et al. (2000) Cell 103, 295-309.
  2. de Caestecker, M.P. et al. (2000) J Natl Cancer Inst 92, 1388-402.
  3. Derynck, R. et al. (2001) Nat Genet 29, 117-29.
  4. Miyazono, K. et al. (2000) Adv Immunol 75, 115-57.
  5. Derynck, R. et al. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1333, F105-150.
  6. López-Casillas, F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 785-795.
  7. Wang, X.F. et al. (1991) Cell 67, 797-805.
  8. Derynck, R. et al. (1998) Cell 95, 737-40.
  9. Massague, J. et al. (2000) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 1, 169-178.
  10. Kingsley, D.M. (1994) Genes Dev. 8, 133-146.

Pathways & Proteins

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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

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