Figure 1. Array Target Map for PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #13047.
Figure 2. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and stimulated with immobilized anti-human CD3 antibody, soluble anti-human CD28 antibody (1 μg/ml), hIL-2 #8907 (2 ng/ml) and hIL-4 #8919 (1 ng/ml) for 2 days. Cells were washed and cultured for 3 days with hIL-2 (2 ng/ml) and hIL-4 (1 ng/ml). Cells were then washed and stimulated with TPA #4174 (10 ng/ml) and Ionomycin, Calcium Salt #9995 (1 μg/ml) for 24 hr before supernatant collection. Supernatants were prepared and analyzed using PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #13407. Images were acquired by briefly exposing the slide to standard chemiluminescent film.
Figure 3. Human PBMCs were isolated from whole blood and pretreated with hIFN-γ #8901 (10 ng/ml) for 2 hr. LPS was then added (1 μg/ml) and cells were incubated for an additional 22 hr before supernatant collection. Supernatants were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #13047. Images were acquired by briefly exposing the slide to standard chemiluminescent film.
Figure 4. Human PBMCs were isolated from whole blood and T cells separated by negative selection. T cells were cultured for 6 days with PHA (5 μg/ml) and hIL-2 #8907 (10 ng/ml). Cells were washed and incubated with PHA (5 μg/ml), TPA #4174 (10 ng/ml) and Ionomycin, Calcium Salt #9995 (1 μg/ml) for 24 hr before supernatant collection. Supernatants were prepared and analyzed using the PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) #13047. Images were acquired by briefly exposing the slide to standard chemiluminescent film.
The PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) uses glass slides as the planar surface and is based upon the sandwich immunoassay principle. This array kit allows for the simultaneous detection of 12 unique extracellular signaling molecules. Target-specific capture antibodies have been spotted in duplicate onto nitrocellulose-coated glass slides. Each kit contains two slides allowing the user to test up to 32 different samples and generate 384 data points in a single experiment. Cell supernatant is incubated on the slide followed by a biotinylated detection antibody cocktail. Streptavidin-conjugated HRP and LumiGLO® Reagent are then used to visualize the bound detection antibody by chemiluminescence. An image of the slide can be captured with either a digital imaging system or standard chemiluminescent film. The image can be analyzed visually or the spot intensities quantified using array analysis software.
Kit should be stored at 4°C with the exception of Lysis Buffer, which is stored at –20°C (packaged separately).
PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit (Chemiluminescent Readout) detects the target proteins as specified on the Array Target Map (Figure 1). No significant cross reactivity has been observed between targets. This kit is optimized for cell culture supernatants. Recommended starting cell culture supernatant range is 20-75 μl. All antibodies have been validated for human-derived cell culture supernatants.
Cytokines are secreted intercellular signaling molecules that regulate many biological processes including inflammation, host defense, and cell differentiation. Cytokine profiles may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that distinguish between healthy and diseased states. The PathScan® Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine Antibody Array Kit offers an antibody panel against a broad array of cytokines to enable measurement of their relative changes in cell culture supernatants.
Upon activation, naive CD4+ helper T cells differentiate into distinct functional subsets. The development of these subsets is driven, in part, by the cytokine milieu. Type 1 (Th1) cells help drive cellular immunity against intracellular pathogens. IL-12 and IFN-γ induce Th1 cell development. Th1 cells produce IFN-γ and IL-2, which provide a positive feedback loop to enhance Th1 cell differentiation and NK cell and CD8+ T cell cytolytic activity.
Th2 cells play a crucial role in the humoral immune response against extracellular pathogens. IL-4 drives development of Th2 cells, which subsequently produce IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. These cytokines induce B cell proliferation, antibody production, IgE class switching, and activate eosinophils respectively.
Another distinct helper T cell lineage, Th17, is important for mucosal immunity. Dysregulation of Th17 may significantly contribute to the development of autoimmunity. IL-17 produced by Th17 cells induces secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8, GM-CSF, and TNF-α. Many of these molecules link innate and adaptive immunity through the recruitment and activation of innate immune cells.
Effective immune responses require finely tuned coordination between pro and anti-inflammatory signals. Pro-inflammatory molecules play important roles in activating key immune players to fight infection. IL-8 induces granulocyte migration and activates neutrophil phagocytic activity. GM-CSF mobilizes monocytes into infected tissue and activates macrophage and neutrophils. TNF-α is a multifunctional pro-inflammatory cytokine involved with a number of processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Uncontrolled inflammation may damage surrounding host tissue. IL-10 is a prototypical anti-inflammatory cytokine that serves to terminate the acute inflammatory response by inhibiting Th1 cell function and pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
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