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PhosphoSitePlus® Resource

  • Additional protein information
  • Analytical tools


Product Description

Nonphosphorylated Stat1/2/3/5 Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from serum-starved HeLa cells prepared without treatment, serve as a negative control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer. Store at -20ºC.

Phosphorylated Stat1/2/3/5 Cell Extracts: Total cell extracts from serum-starved HeLa cells prepared with 100 ng/ml interferon-alpha 5 minute IFN-alpha treatment, serve as a positive control. Supplied in SDS Sample Buffer. Store at -20ºC.

Jaks (Janus Kinases) and Stats (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) are utilized by receptors for a wide variety of ligands including cytokines, hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters. Jaks, activated via autophosphorylation following ligand-induced receptor aggregation, phosphorylate tyrosine residues on associated receptors, Stat molecules and other downstream signaling proteins (1,2). The phosphorylation of Stat proteins at conserved tyrosine residues activates SH2-mediated dimerization followed rapidly by nuclear translocation. Stat dimers bind to IRE (interferon response element) and GAS (gamma interferon-activated sequence) DNA elements, resulting in the transcriptional regulation of downstream genes (1,2). The remarkable range and specificity of responses regulated by the Stats is determined in part by the tissue-specific expression of different cytokine receptors, Jaks and Stats (2,3), and by the combinatorial coupling of various Stat members to different receptors. Serine phosphorylation in the carboxy-terminal transcriptional activation domain has been shown to regulate the function of Stat1, -2, -3, -4 and -5 (1). Phosphorylation of Stat3 at Ser727 via MAPK or mTOR pathways is required for optimal transcriptional activation in response to growth factors and cytokines including IFN-gamma and CNTF (4,5). Jak/Stat pathways also play important roles in oncogenesis, tumor progression, angiogenesis, cell motility, immune responses and stem cell differentiation (6-11).

1.  Darnell, J.E. et al. (1994) Science 264, 1415-21.

2.  Leonard, W.J. and O'Shea, J.J. (1998) Annu. Rev. Immunol. 16, 293-322.

3.  Caldenhoven, E. et al. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 13221-13227.

4.  Wen, Z. et al. (1995) Cell 82, 241-50.

5.  Yokogami, K. et al. (2000) Curr Biol 10, 47-50.

6.  Lim, C.P. and Cao, X. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31055-31061.

7.  Bromberg, J.F. et al. (1999) Cell 98, 295-303.

8.  Su, L. et al. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 31770-31774.

9.  Dentelli, P. et al. (1999) J Immunol 163, 2151-9.

10.  Cattaneo, E. et al. (1999) Trends Neurosci. 22, 365-369.

11.  Frank, D.A. (1999) Mol Med 5, 432-56.

For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
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Stat 1/2/3/5 Control Cell Extracts