Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of 293T cells transfected with a construct expressing DYKDDDDK-tagged TET1 catalytic domain (TET1-CD) using 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb (green) and DYKDDDDK Tag (9A3) Mouse mAb #8146 (red). Blue pseudocolor = DRAQ5® #4084 (fluorescent DNA dye). As expected, 293T cells expressing TET1-CD (red) exhibit decreased levels of 5-methylcytosine (green).
DNA immunoprecipitations were performed with 1 μg of genomic DNA from NCCIT cells and either 10 μl of 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb #28692 or 10 μl of Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (DIP Formulated). The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using human Aqp2 intron 5 primers, human TIMP3 promoter primers, SimpleDIP™ Human Testis-Specific H2B Promoter Primers, and SimpleChIP® Human GAPDH Exon 1 Primers #5516. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input DNA, which is equivalent to one.
DNA immunoprecipitations were performed with 1 μg of genomic DNA from mouse embryonic stem cells and either 10 μl of 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb #28692 or 10 μl of Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control (DIP Formulated). The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using mouse Aqp2 exon 1 primers, SimpleDIP™ Mouse Intracisternal-A Particle (IAP) LTR Primers, mouse Lamc3 exon 1 primers, and SimpleChIP® Mouse GAPDH Intron 2 Primers #8986. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input DNA, which is equivalent to one.
The specificity of 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb was determined by ELISA. The antibody was titrated against a single-stranded DNA oligo containing either unmodified cytosine or differentially modified cytosine (5-mC, 5-hmC, 5-caC, 5-fC). As shown in the graph, the antibody only binds to the oligo containing 5-mC.
The specificity of 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb was determined by DNA immunoprecipitations. DNA IPs were performed with genomic DNA prepared from mouse embryonic stem cells, spiked with control DNA containing either unmethylated cytosine, 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), or 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmc). IPs were performed using 5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb. The enriched DNA was quantified by real-time PCR using primers specific to the spiked-in control DNA sequence. The amount of immunoprecipitated DNA in each sample is represented as signal relative to the total amount of input DNA, which is equivalent to one.
|DNA Dot Blot||1:1000|
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
IMPORTANT: This protocol employs an atypical fixation and denaturation strategy with which only certain targets are compatible. Where appropriate, this protocol will be linked to its validated antibody under the Product Information banner on the product-specific webpage.
NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalently purified water.
NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature (20-25°C) unless noted otherwise.
Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
NOTE: If using a fluorochrome-conjugated primary antibody, then skip to Section C, Step 8.
Counterstain as appropriate.
NOTE: When including fluorescent cellular dyes in your experiment (DNA dyes, etc.), please refer to the dye product page for its recommended protocol. View our listing of cellular dyes validated for use in immunofluorescence.
posted December 2015
revised December 2020
Protocol Id: 865
Note: This protocol is written for spotting fragmented, purified genomic DNA (titration of 1000 ng, 500 ng, 250 ng, 125 ng, 62.5 ng, 31.25 ng, and 15.625 ng) onto a positively charged nylon membrane using a 96-well dot blotting apparatus. Depending on the source and type of DNA, more or less DNA may be required for detection with the antibody.
• Purify genomic DNA using a genomic DNA purification protocol or kit and sonicate
genomic DNA to generate fragments between 200 and 500 bp. DNA fragment size
can be analyzed by gel electrophoresis on a 1% agarose gel with a 100 bp DNA
• Cut a piece of nylon membrane to the size of the dot blot manifold.
• Wet nylon membrane with 10x SSC Buffer.
• Dry membrane by placing it in 96-well dot blot apparatus and applying vacuum.
NOTE: Due to the kinetics of the detection reaction, signal is most intense immediately following incubation and declines over the following 2 hr
posted November 2015
Protocol Id: 804
5-Methylcytosine (5-mC) (D3S2Z) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of 5-methylcytosine. This antibody has been validated using ELISA, dot blot, and MeDIP assays and shows high specificity for 5-methylcytosine.
All Species Expected
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with 5-methylcytidine.
Methylation of DNA at cytosine residues is a heritable, epigenetic modification that is critical for proper regulation of gene expression, genomic imprinting, and mammalian development (1,2). 5-methylcytosine is a repressive epigenetic mark established de novo by two enzymes, DNMT3a and DNMT3b, and is maintained by DNMT1 (3, 4). 5-methylcytosine was originally thought to be passively depleted during DNA replication. However, subsequent studies have shown that Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins TET1, TET2, and TET3 can catalyze the oxidation of methylated cytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) (5). Additionally, TET proteins can further oxidize 5-hmC to form 5-formylcytosine (5-fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5-caC), both of which are excised by thymine-DNA glycosylase (TDG), effectively linking cytosine oxidation to the base excision repair pathway and supporting active cytosine demethylation (6,7).
Normally DNA methylation occurs in a bimodal fashion, such that CpG dinucleotides are largely methylated across the genome, except in short stretches of CpG-rich sequences associated with gene promoters, known as CpG-islands, where methylation is virtually absent (8). Cancer cell genomes often undergo global hypomethylation, while CpG-islands become hypermethylated, causing their associated promoters to become repressed (9). There is evidence that a number of aberrantly hypermethylated CpG-islands found in carcinomas occur at tumor suppressor genes such as RB1, MLH1, and BRCA1 (10).
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