|9516||Phospho-Smad1/5 (Ser463/465) (41D10) Rabbit mAb||
||H M R|
|9520||Phospho-Smad3 (Ser423/425) (C25A9) Rabbit mAb||
||H M R|
Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA and 50% glycerol. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.
Phospho-Smad3 (Ser423/425)/Smad 1 (Ser463/465) Antibody detects endogenous levels of Smad3 only when phosphorylated at serines 423 and 425. The antibody cross-reacts with Smad1 when phosphorylated at serines 463 and 465 and may cross-react with Smad5 and Smad8 when phosphorylated at the equivalent sites. The antibody does not cross-react with Smad2.
Polyclonal antibodies are produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phosphopeptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser423 and Ser425 of human Smad3. Antibodies are purified by protein A and peptide affinity chromatography.
Members of the Smad family of signal transduction molecules are components of a critical intracellular pathway that transmit TGF-β signals from the cell surface into the nucleus. Three distinct classes of Smads have been defined: the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), which include Smad1, 2, 3, 5, and 8; the common-mediator Smad (co-Smad), Smad4; and the antagonistic or inhibitory Smads (I-Smads), Smad6 and 7 (1-5). Activated type I receptors associate with specific R-Smads and phosphorylate them on a conserved carboxy terminal SSXS motif. The phosphorylated R-Smad dissociates from the receptor and forms a heteromeric complex with the co-Smad (Smad4), allowing translocation of the complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, Smads can target a variety of DNA binding proteins to regulate transcriptional responses (6-8).
Following stimulation by TGF-β, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated at their carboxyl termini (Ser465 and 467 on Smad2; Ser423 and 425 on Smad3) by TGF-β Receptor I. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 can complex with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate gene expression (9-11).
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