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70973
Phospho-Ubiquitin (Ser65) (E5T1W) Rabbit mAb
Primary Antibodies

Phospho-Ubiquitin (Ser65) (E5T1W) Rabbit mAb #70973

APPLICATIONS

REACTIVITY SENSITIVITY MW (kDa) Isotype
H Endogenous Rabbit IgG
IF-IC

Confocal immunofluorescent analysis of PC-3 cells, untreated (left), treated with CCCP (30 μM, 6 hr; center), or treated with CCCP and post-processed with λ-phosphatase (right), using Phospho-Ubiquitin (Ser65) (E5T1W) Rabbit mAb (green). Actin filaments were labeled with DyLight™ 554 Phalloidin #13054 (red). Blue = Hoechst 33342 #4082 (fluorescent DNA dye).

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Flow Cytometry

Flow cytometric analysis of PC-3 cells, untreated (blue) or treated with CCCP (30 μM, 6 hr; green), using Phospho-Ubiquitin (Ser65) (E5T1W) Rabbit mAb (solid lines) or concentration-matched Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (dashed lines). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 488 Conjugate) #4412 was used as a secondary antibody.

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Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry)

A. Solutions and Reagents

Achieve higher quality immunofluorescent images using the efficient and cost-effective, pre-made reagents in our #12727 Immunofluorescence Application Solutions Kit

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (9808) To prepare 1L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix. Adjust pH to 8.0.
  2. Formaldehyde: 16%, methanol free, Polysciences, Inc. (cat# 18814), use fresh and store opened vials at 4°C in dark, dilute in 1X PBS for use.
  3. Blocking Buffer (1X PBS / 5% normal serum / 0.3% Triton™ X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 0.5 ml normal serum from the same species as the secondary antibody (e.g., Normal Goat Serum (#5425)) and 0.5 mL 20X PBS to 9.0 mL dH2O, mix well. While stirring, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100.
  4. Antibody Dilution Buffer (1X PBS / 1% BSA / 0.3% Triton X-100): To prepare 10 ml, add 30 µl Triton™ X-100 to 10 ml 1X PBS. Mix well then add 0.1 g BSA (9998), mix.
  5. Recommended Fluorochrome-conjugated Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies:

  6. Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent (#9071), Prolong® Gold AntiFade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).

B. Specimen Preparation - Cultured Cell Lines (IF-IC)

NOTE: Cells should be grown, treated, fixed and stained directly in multi-well plates, chamber slides or on coverslips.

  1. Aspirate liquid, then cover cells to a depth of 2–3 mm with 4% formaldehyde diluted in 1X PBS.

    NOTE: Formaldehyde is toxic, use only in a fume hood.

  2. Allow cells to fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  3. Aspirate fixative, rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  4. Proceed with Immunostaining (Section C).

C. Immunostaining

NOTE: All subsequent incubations should be carried out at room temperature unless otherwise noted in a humid light-tight box or covered dish/plate to prevent drying and fluorochrome fading.

  1. Block specimen in Blocking Buffer for 60 min.
  2. While blocking, prepare primary antibody by diluting as indicated on datasheet in Antibody Dilution Buffer.
  3. Aspirate blocking solution, apply diluted primary antibody.
  4. Incubate overnight at 4°C.
  5. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  6. Incubate specimen in fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody diluted in Antibody Dilution Buffer for 1–2 hr at room temperature in the dark.
  7. Rinse three times in 1X PBS for 5 min each.
  8. Coverslip slides with Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent (#9071) or Prolong® Gold Antifade Reagent with DAPI (#8961).
  9. For best results, allow mountant to cure overnight at room temperature. For long-term storage, store slides flat at 4°C protected from light.

posted November 2006

revised November 2013

Protocol Id: 24

Flow Cytometry, Methanol Permeabilization Protocol for Rabbit Antibodies

A. Solutions and Reagents

NOTE: Prepare solutions with reverse osmosis deionized (RODI) or equivalent grade water.

  1. 20X Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS): (#9808) To prepare 1 L 1X PBS: add 50 ml 20X PBS to 950 ml dH2O, mix.
  2. 16% Formaldehyde (methanol free).
  3. 100% methanol.
  4. Incubation Buffer: Dissolve 0.5 g Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) (#9998) in 100 ml 1X PBS. Store at 4°C.
  5. Recommended Anti-Rabbit secondary antibodies::

B. Fixation

NOTE: If using whole blood, lyse red blood cells and wash by centrifugation prior to fixation.

  1. Collect cells by centrifugation and aspirate supernatant.
  2. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS. Add formaldehyde to obtain a final concentration of 4%.
  3. Fix for 15 min at room temperature.
  4. Wash by centrifugation with excess 1X PBS. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Resuspend cells in 0.5-1 ml 1X PBS.

C. Permeabilization

  1. Permeabilize cells by adding ice-cold 100% methanol slowly to pre-chilled cells, while gently vortexing, to a final concentration of 90% methanol.
  2. Incubate 30 min on ice.
  3. Proceed with immunostaining (Section D) or store cells at -20°C in 90% methanol.

D. Immunostaining

NOTE: Count cells using a hemocytometer or alternative method.

  1. Aliquot desired number of cells into tubes or wells.
  2. Wash cells by centrifugation in excess 1X PBS to remove methanol. Discard supernatant in appropriate waste container. Repeat if necessary.
  3. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted primary antibody (prepared in incubation buffer at the recommended dilution).
  4. Incubate for 1 hr at room temperature.
  5. Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  6. Resuspend cells in 100 µl of diluted fluorochrome-conjugated secondary antibody (prepared in incubation buffer at recommended dilution).
  7. Incubate for 30 min at room temperature.
  8. Wash by centrifugation in incubation buffer. Discard supernatant. Repeat.
  9. Resuspend cells in 1X PBS and analyze on flow cytometer; alternatively, for DNA staining, proceed to optional DNA stain (Section E).

E. Optional DNA Dye

  1. Resuspend cells in 0.5 ml of DNA dye (e.g. Propidium Iodide (PI)/RNase Staining Solution #4087).
  2. Incubate for at least 5 min at room temperature.
  3. Analyze cells in DNA staining solution on flow cytometer.

posted July 2009

revised June 2017

Protocol Id: 404

Application Dilutions
Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry) 1:1000
Flow Cytometry 1:300
Storage:

Supplied in 10 mM sodium HEPES (pH 7.5), 150 mM NaCl, 100 µg/ml BSA, 50% glycerol and less than 0.02% sodium azide. Store at –20°C. Do not aliquot the antibody.

Phospho-Ubiquitin (Ser65) (E5T1W) Rabbit mAb recognizes endogenous levels of Ubiquitin protein only when phosphorylated at Ser65.

Species Reactivity:

Human

Species predicted to react based on 100% sequence homology:

Mouse, Rat

Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a synthetic phospho-peptide corresponding to residues surrounding Ser65 of human Ubiquitin protein.

Ubiquitin is a conserved polypeptide unit that plays an important role in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Ubiquitin can be covalently linked to many cellular proteins by the ubiquitination process, which targets proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. Three components are involved in the target protein-ubiquitin conjugation process. Ubiquitin is first activated by forming a thiolester complex with the activation component E1; the activated ubiquitin is subsequently transferred to the ubiquitin-carrier protein E2, then from E2 to ubiquitin ligase E3 for final delivery to the epsilon-NH2 of the target protein lysine residue (1-3). The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway has been implicated in a wide range of normal biological processes and in disease-related abnormalities. Several proteins such as IκB, p53, cdc25A, and Bcl-2 have been shown to be targets for the ubiquitin-proteasome process as part of regulation of cell cycle progression, differentiation, cell stress response, and apoptosis (4-7).

Ubiquitin is phosphorylated at Ser65 by PINK1, leading to activation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin (8, 9). PINK1 accumulates on depolarized mitochondria, resulting in phosphorylation of ubiquitin and activation of Parkin, which then triggers the mitophagy pathway to clear damaged mitochondria. Loss-of-function mutations in PINK1 and Parkin result in early onset Parkinson's disease (10, 11).

  1. Ciechanover, A. (1998) EMBO J 17, 7151-60.
  2. Hochstrasser, M. (2000) Nat Cell Biol 2, E153-7.
  3. Hochstrasser, M. (2000) Science 289, 563-4.
  4. Bernardi, R. et al. (2000) Oncogene 19, 2447-54.
  5. Aberle, H. et al. (1997) EMBO J 16, 3797-804.
  6. Salomoni, P. and Pandolfi, P.P. (2002) Nat Cell Biol 4, E152-3.
  7. Jesenberger, V. and Jentsch, S. (2002) Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3, 112-21.
  8. Kane, L.A. et al. (2014) J Cell Biol 205, 143-53.
  9. Koyano, F. et al. (2014) Nature 510, 162-6.
  10. Kitada, T. et al. (1998) Nature 392, 605-8.
  11. Valente, E.M. et al. (2004) Science 304, 1158-60.
Entrez-Gene Id
6233 , 7311 , 7314 , 7316
Swiss-Prot Acc.
P62979 , P62987 , P0CG47 , P0CG48
For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.

Cell Signaling Technology is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
XP is a registered trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
Alexa Fluor is a registered trademark of Life Technologies Corporation.
DyLight is a trademark of Thermo Fisher Scientific, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

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