Fluorescent detection of SignalSilence® Control siRNA (Fluorescein Conjugate) #6201 in living HeLa cells 24 hours post-transfection, demonstrating nearly 100% transfection efficiency.
Western blot analysis of extracts from HeLa cells transfected with 100 nM control siRNA #6201 (-) or PAK2 siRNA, using PAK2 Antibody #2608 and p42 MAP Kinase (Erk2) Antibody #9108. The PAK2 Antibody confirms silencing of PAK2 expression, and p42 MAP Kinase (Erk2) Antibody is used to control for loading and specificity of PAK2 siRNA.
CST recommends transfection with 100nM human-specific PAK2 siRNA 48 to 72 hours prior to cell lysis. See Protocol for transfection procedure.
SignalSilence® siRNA is supplied in RNAse-free water. Aliquot and store at -20ºC.
SignalSilence® PAK2 siRNA from Cell Signaling Technology allows the researcher to specifically inhibit PAK2 expression using RNA interference, a method in which gene expression can be selectively silenced through the delivery of double stranded RNA molecules into the cell. All SignalSilence® siRNA products are rigorously tested in-house and have been shown to reduce protein expression using total antibodies from Cell Signaling Technology.
The p21-activated kinase (PAK) family of serine/threonine kinases is engaged in multiple cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, MAPK signaling, apoptotic signaling, control of phagocyte NADPH oxidase, and growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth (1,2). Several mechanisms that induce PAK activity have been reported. Binding of Rac/Cdc42 to the CRIB (or PBD) domain near the amino terminus of PAK causes autophosphorylation and conformational changes in PAK (1). Phosphorylation of PAK1 at Thr423 by PDK induces activation of PAK1 (3). Several autophosphorylation sites have been identified, including Ser199 and Ser204 of PAK1 and Ser192 and Ser197 of PAK2 (4,5). Because the autophosphorylation sites are located in the amino-terminal inhibitory domain, it has been hypothesized that modification in this region prevents the kinase from reverting to an inactive conformation (6). Research indicates that phosphorylation at Ser144 of PAK1 or Ser139 of PAK3 (located in the kinase inhibitory domain) affects kinase activity (7). Phosphorylation at Ser21 of PAK1 or Ser20 of PAK2 regulates binding with the adaptor protein Nck (8). PAK4, PAK5, and PAK6 have lower sequence similarity with PAK1-3 in the amino-terminal regulatory region (9). Phosphorylation at Ser474 of PAK4, a site analogous to Thr423 of PAK1, may play a pivotal role in regulating the activity and function of PAK4 (10).
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