Product Pathways - Growth Factors/Cytokines
TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific) #11948
|11948S||100 µl (10 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|11948P||40 µl (4 western blots)||---||In Stock||---|
|11948||carrier free and custom formulation / quantity||email request|
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Species cross-reactivity is determined by western blot.
Applications Key: W=Western Blotting, IP=Immunoprecipitation, IF-IC=Immunofluorescence (Immunocytochemistry), F=Flow Cytometry
* Product-specific protocol.
Specificity / Sensitivity
TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific) recognizes endogenous levels of total TNF-α protein.
Source / Purification
Monoclonal antibody is produced by immunizing animals with a recombinant mouse TNF-α protein.
Western blot analysis of extracts from Raw 264.7 cells, untreated (-) or treated (+) with LPS (100 ng/mL, 6 hr) and Brefeldin A #9972 (300 ng/mL, last 3 hr of stimulation), using TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific) (upper) or β-Actin (D6A8) Rabbit mAb #8457 (lower).
Western blot analysis of 1 ng recombinant mouse TNF-α #5178 and 1 ng recombinant rat TNF-α using TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific).
Immunoprecipitation of TNF-α from Raw 264.7 cell extracts, treated with LPS (100 ng/mL, 6 hr) and Brefeldin A #9972 (300 ng/mL, last 3 hr of stimulation), using Rabbit (DA1E) mAb IgG XP® Isotype Control #3900 (lane 2) or TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific) (lane 3). Lane 1 is 10% input. Western blot analysis was performed using TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific). Mouse Anti-rabbit IgG (Conformation Specific) (L27A9) #3678 and Anti-mouse IgG, HRP-linked Antibody #7076 were used as sencondary antibodies.
Flow cytometric analysis of Raw 264.7 cells, untreated (blue) or treated with LPS (100 ng/ml, 6 hr) and Brefeldin A #9972 (300 ng/ml, last 3 hr of treatment) (green), using TNF-α (D2D4) XP® Rabbit mAb (Rodent Specific). Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L), F(ab')2 Fragment (Alexa Fluor® 647 Conjugate) #4414 was used as a secondary antibody.
TNF-α, the prototypical member of the TNF protein superfamily, is a homotrimeric type-II membrane protein (1,2). Membrane-bound TNF-α is cleaved by the metalloprotease TACE/ADAM17 to generate a soluble homotrimer (2). Both membrane and soluble forms of TNF-α are biologically active. TNF-α is produced by a variety of immune cells including T cells, B cells, NK cells, and macrophages (1). Cellular response to TNF-α is mediated through interaction with receptors TNF-R1 and TNF-R2 and results in activation of pathways that favor both cell survival and apoptosis depending on the cell type and biological context. Activation of kinase pathways (including JNK, Erk1/2, p38 MAPK, and NF-κB) promotes the survival of cells, while TNF-α-mediated activation of caspase-8 leads to programmed cell death (1,2). TNF-α plays a key regulatory role in inflammation and host defense against bacterial infection, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3).
Mouse and rat TNF-α are predicted to be glycosylated, while human TNF-α is not (4).
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For Research Use Only. Not For Use In Diagnostic Procedures.
XP® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.
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Cell Signaling Technology® is a trademark of Cell Signaling Technology, Inc.